Carl Sagan once said you have to know thepast to understand the present it wouldn't be wrong to add that a knowledge of thepast also helps us to shape our future humanity has been looking up to the stars sincethe dawn of time to understand where we come from and what tomorrow holds in store for us wewere limited by our capabilities dreaming of time machines that could show us the past present andfuture at the same time but now we have it this December 22nd may become known as the day theuniverse changed that Wednesday NASA expects to launch the James Webb space telescope we mighteven glimpse the very origins of our universe and and it's going to answer two big questionsfor astrophysics where do we come from and are we alone and we're looking forward to gettingthose results well not exactly a time machine .
But a machine that can peer into time and tell uswhat to expect in the future the gold-plated James Webb telescope is the largest space observatoryin human history and it's ready to unravel the secrets of the universe that have stupefied ourminds for centuries welcome the fact nominal in today's video we look briefly at the developmentof the James Webb space telescope and then take a deep dive into incredible marvels and mysteriesastronomers expect to encounter and unravel when Hubble was still in diapers relativelyspeaking the concept that became Webb was proposed as the next generation space telescopeand six years later adopted the name of nasa pioneer James e Webb with collaboration fromthe European and Canadian space agencies nasa targeted 2007 for the JWST launch that ofcourse was off by about 14 years due largely to .
The chasm of differences between this new marveland Hubble so how are the two different Hubble has tremendous range in the spectrum of visible lightand a more limited region to the ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths in fact the cosmiclaw attributed to Edwin Hubble and others was discovered by observing that the red shiftof galaxies is directly proportional to their distance from earth something that the Hubbletelescope studied up to its capability this is where the JWST's unique abilities jump in and whynasa prefers to call it the successor rather than the replacement to Hubble it is specificallyfocused on the infrared part of the spectrum which means it can see light emitted by stars andgalaxies that existed over 13 billion years ago which makes this telescope in essence a timemachine just to see through clouds of galactic .
Dust in our galaxy that absorb visible light isa tremendous advantage of infrared images and while Hubble does have that capability the JWSTwill peer out to far greater distances further back in time also the light gathering ability ofthe JWST dwarfs that of Hubble the web mirror is much larger and 100 times more powerful to see thesize difference compare the diameter of a softball to that of an NBA basketball Webb also has afield of view roughly 15 times that of Hubble while Hubble for three decades has orbited theearth from 570 kilometers the JWST will orbit the sun at 1.5 million kilometers from earth atwhat is called the second lagrange point or l2 heat radiation evenslight interferes withdetection of infrared sources much further away so for optimal performance the jwst needs to beminus 233 degrees celsius or minus 388 degrees .
Fahrenheit thus the much further distance andfive-layer tennis court size sun shield to keep background heat from the sun from interferingwith Webb's infrared sensors picture a large beach umbrella and its advantages on a hot day so whatare we looking for and what do we expect to find after all this is why three decades and 10 billiondollars are invested in the JWST let's take a look remember that time machine monikeroften used to refer to JWST there's a great reason for that light fromthe very early universe is quite red-shifted and some is out of reach of anything we've had upuntil now web is specifically designed for near and mid infrared observations that will reachfarther back through time and open windows into the beginnings of the universe while we cannotsee the big bang because stars and galaxies had .
Yet to form scientists hoped to peer intothe period just after the cosmic dark ages to when the first stars and galaxiescame to be called the re-ionization era this was perhaps as soon as one hundred thousandyears after the big bang and scientists are counting on Webb to hopefully pin down moreprecisely when the universe's first light appeared day one James Webb space telescope itinerarysurvey half a million galaxies in one narrow patch of sky about the size of three full moonsin a project called Cosmos Webb okay it's actually not day one since the JWST will be in space forweeks before it's down to operating temperature and about six months before routine scientificoperations begin but for the schedule 208.6 observing hours a team of nearly 50 researcherswill survey some 500,000 galaxies including .
An unprecedented 32,000 in mid infrared to diginto the formation and evolution of our universe oh did we mention that Webb will quickly releasejaw-dropping eye candy images to the public we now have photographs of black holes okay notof them since light cannot escape their grasp but we have the closest thing possible from earthwith the startling 2019 image of the colossus at the heart of the galaxy m87 captured bythe event horizon telescope EHT project astronomers believe these supermassive blackholes are at the center of virtually every large galaxy those actively feeding on enoughsurrounding matter create a light so bright that it outshines the rest of the galaxy and arecalled quasars even more recently in early 2021 the polarized light image of the center of m87also came from the EHT project which uses eight .
Radio telescopes around the world in collaborationto form a virtual earth-sized megascope now picture this planetary megascope teamed upwith web's capabilities in space exactly the JWST will work with the EHT project to capture thefirst image of our own milky way's supermassive black hole known as sagittarius a star or SGR astar our cosmic neighbor relatively speaking has a mass of 4.3 million suns and is an uncomfortablyclose 27 000 light years from earth the JWST is expected to give astronomers an incredible viewof the flickering flares regularly emitted from our galactic core something not detected from m87thus far that's not even the wildest black hole exploration Webb has on its to-do list astronomershave found three enormous quasars more than 13 billion light years from earth as nasa estimatesthe universe to be 13.8 billion years old the .
JWST will explore these objects with billions ofsolar masses that date back to the early universe our new time machine is about to give us a look atprimordial galaxies and possibly habitable planets the number of confirmed exoplanets haseclipsed 4 000 since they were first discovered about two decades ago and thetotal is doubling roughly every 27 months the JWST is about to tell us far more than weknow about these other worlds as it studies their atmosphere and even looks for the buildingblocks of life one way is with the transit method which looks for the dimming of a star's lightas the planet passes between the star and web in conjunction with ground-based observatoriesWebb will help measure the planet's mass and provide a spectroscopy of its atmospherespectroscopy uses the intensity of light .
At different wavelengths measured whenthe planet passes in front of the star when a planet passes in front of a star thestarlight passes through the planet's atmosphere if say the planet has sodium in its atmosphere thespectra of the star added to that of the planet we'll have what we call an absorption line inthe place in the spectra where we would expect to see sodium this is because different elements andmolecules absorb light at characteristic energies this is precisely how we know where in a spectrumwe might expect to see the signature of sodium methane carbon dioxide or even water Dr. MarciaRieke professor at the University of Arizona and principal investigator of JWST's NIRCambelieves that it's possible that we may not only find more planets but potentiallymore planets with atmospheres like ours .
It's not just objects 13 billion light years awaythat the James Webb space telescope will explore our own backyard is about to be revealed to us inways we had only ever imagined everything from the outer planets to Kuiper belt objects and asteroidsthe JWST will allow us to see our cosmic neighbors in a new light scientists will be able to studythe composition of surface ices and volatiles on a number of bodies in our system as well asthe new class of icy comets in the asteroid belt planets and their satellites will also comeunder web scrutiny most of which will be used in collaboration with other nasa solar systemmissions and ground orbiting and deep space observatories Webb will be paying close attentionto mars by surveying and following up on previous findings of mars rovers and landers we may finallyfind out whether our neighboring red planet had .
A habitable past further out expect Jupiter toget special attention from the JWST as it images the planet's many spectacular features its moonGanymede will also be studied for the potential hidden ocean between its icy crust and we canexpect an investigation into the fiery moon Io and its volcanic wonderland the JWST will alsoenhance our knowledge of the mineralogy of our neighboring planets its unprecedented sensitivityand spectral resolution will be used to understand more of molecular and mineral spectral wavelengthsinaccessible from the ground not to mention monitoring planetary and satellite weather andseasonal changes and inevitably so much more since its conception decades ago the missionof the James Webb space telescope has morphed simply because of expanding knowledge of theuniverse mysteries that were not even considered .
When the design began are front and center todayand what about tomorrow astronomers fully expect the unexpected and with our incredible universethey will not be disappointed nasa calls these targets of opportunity and says that Webb'sattention may be diverted to the unexpected in as little as two days the observatory will be able toslew up to 90 degrees in less than an hour so what are your expectations for the James Webb spacetelescope what would you like most to be revealed about our universe tell us in the comments andas always thank you for watching Factnomenal
Carl Sagan once said “You have to know the past to understand the present.” It wouldn’t be wrong to add that a knowledge of the past also helps us to shape our future. Humanity has been looking up to the stars since the dawn of time to understand where we come from and what tomorrow holds in store for us. We were limited by our capabilities… dreaming of time machines that could show us the past, present, and future – at the same time. But now, we have it. Well, not exactly a time machine, but a machine that can peer into time and tell us what to expect in future. The gold plated James Webb telescope is the largest space observatory in human history and it’s ready to unravel the secrets of the universe that have stupefied our minds for centuries. Welcome to Factnomenal! In today’s video we look briefly at the development of the James Webb Space Telescope and then take a deep dive into incredible marvels and mysteries astronomers expect to encounter and unravel. NASA’s $10 Billion Time Machine | James Webb Telescope Buy us a coffee to show your support! https://www.buymeacoffee.com/Factnomenal DON’T CLICK THIS LINK: https://tinyurl.com/357shs3j Thanks for watching Factnomenal! 🌎 Subscribe for more space discoveries, space facts, and space in general! 🔔 Hit the bell next to subscribe so you never miss a video! ► For copyright matters, make sure to send us an email to Adam@trustedmiddle.com #Factnomenal #Space #JWST