Thursday, May 19, 2022

How to write your first computer science research paper?

However I am on and Sitaram an assistant professor in the computer science department at the same State University of New York Binghamton in this video I wanted to talk to you about how to write a research paper now if you're a graduate student in computer science regardless of the field that you work in you will .

Be submitting research papers to conferences and journals now depending on your research area and the appropriateness of the work that you've done you would submit it to the conference or a journal that you would like now there are different areas and computer science for example computer networks machine learning natural .

Language processing computer vision and depending on the area that you're working the length of your paper is going to vary now the format that you would use to write your paper would also vary depending on the area for example the paper that we have in front of us is written in the ACM format this is a paper that my students and I and I .

Collaborate up wrote and submitted to build sis 2019 which is a top conference in the area of energy systems and it was accepted and presented at that conference so what I would do today is go through and help you understand how you can write your research paper now this particular paper is formatted in the ACM style depending on your research .

Area as I mentioned you might use some other style for example the I Triple E style or the triple AI style and there are other styles as well but regardless of your style or your research area all papers have some things that are common and what I would like to convey in this video are the things that you would need to need to write a research paper on .

Your own now the first thing that you would notice here is that the paper has an abstract an abstract is usually something in the order of 150 to 1 to 250 words and it succinctly captures the main contributions of the preper so that's what an abstract is now the abstract comes in the beginning of the people but .

When you are trying to write your research paper your abstract is something that you'll write lost this is because you knew only know your abstract once you have written your entire paper and you are completely sure and confident of all the results now the next section of your paper which is important is the introduction now the .

Introduction is the portion where you introduce the your contributions of your paper now we'll go through the different sections then I'll tell you how you can actually write different paragraphs of the introduction now after the introduction what you usually have is a section called the related work now till this portion all papers follow a .

Specific format now from the next section the the format of the paper or the style of the paper can change depending on what kind of problem that you are tackling now in it in a generic setting what you would do is you would first introduce the problem that you are working on now the in this paper that the problem that we were working on was .

Also associated with some real-world data that we had collected from our buildings on our campus so this section we titled it as problem statement and data there are a bunch of other different kinds of papers where you would first write your problem statement along with your assumptions and the model that you're going to consider so .

Those are the things that go in this section now after you have described the problem that you are planning to work on what you attempt to do is you then describe the solution which in this case is our system swap that we design okay so this is the usual structure so first you describe your problem then you present your solution now once you have .

Presented your solution which would go in like few pages the final important section would be usually something called performance evaluation it can also be titled results sometimes if you do simulation work its title simulation results it is basically where you preserve the results of your work now once you've presented your results .

Which usually go on for a few pages what you finally do is you conclude your people with conclusion here and an outlook towards future work so this is the general structure of a paper so what did we do let's go back we first had an abstract did you which I told you is usually written after a paper is complete so the first section is .

Essentially your introduction then you have a section on related work when you compare and contrast your current research with other research that is out there the third section is usually the problem statement and describes your assumptions and what kind of problem you're working on then you present your solution or algorithm that you are .

Designing it could also be the system and finally you present your results that you that demonstrate the superior performance of your system or algorithm or the approach in general finally you conclude the paper with the conclusion and with an outlook of future results one thing that I forgot to mention so .

Far is something called references so these are this is your reference section so at the end of your paper you would have all the references that you've cited for doing this research and which are related to your work ok so now how do you go about writing this paper ok so every paper is different because it tells a different story .

But I'm going to give you some high-level tips so let's start with introduction see you have found a problem and you have come up with an algorithm to actually solve that problem that you have so that's where any research starts you find a problem or do some reading of related work see how it's different from the work .

That is out there how it advances the comment research then you come up with a solution that you that you propose and you have some results and so once you get to this state that you found a problem identified and a gap in existing work come up with a new solution and then garden some initial results you can start writing your paper now one of the .

Hardest sections to write in a paper is your introduction why is that the hardest because would you say when you submit your paper to a conference or a journal reviewers are going to review your people and they are going to decide whether your work is meritorious enough to actually publish in this particular conference a journal so you won't .

Attract the reviewers and make them interested in your research to do that the abstract is a portion where you highlight all your contributions and once the reviewers have read your apps regularly read your introduction so in the introduction the first partner of the first two paragraph or the first paragraph at least of your research is .

Your motivation you have to motivate why your problem is interesting and why somebody should be interested in this research and why it is important for example in this paper we were taught thinking about designing models for water consumption prediction and as you can see we have presented some data showing why this is an important problem .

To to study okay now sometimes it's not just done in one paragraph it can go over you can take a couple of paragraphs to actually motivate your work there is no hard and fast rule but that's what you do then what you have to do is then in the in the in the fall paragraph that follows in this case my say our second .

Paragraph of this paper is you design what is the problem and why you want to solve it and how this is an overview of your research okay now the subsequent paragraphs of your introduction actually will highlight your contributions that's what we have done in this paragraph here and in this paragraph and the final .

Paragraph is kind of wrapping up what is the overall contribution of your work overall contribution so that's what you that's what that is a general outline how to present your research now this is I would like to say that this is not the only way to write a paper sometimes you would like to itemize your contributions so that it's very clear to the reviewers .

What your actual contributions are and how they advance the state of that but there are different styles I just mentioned what you should try to do when you're writing your paper this this would be the first draft of your paper and then you can improve upon it as you go along now in the related works section you would depending on how much .

Space you have and what's the length of the paper you want to cite the relevant research and you write a couple of paragraphs or more on what is the related work and how you differ so that's what this section does what is the related work and more importantly how you differ that's what you should try to do in this .

Section now in our in this paper we first described a problem that we are that we studied in the next section the thing that you can notice here is I've clearly highlighted a subsection called problem statement so this will draw the attention of the reviewer to something that is important or basically what is the problem and in the earlier parts of .

This paper we had defined the problem loosely in layman's terms in the introduction but you will see here that we have defined it much more precisely here so this is precise definition so so this is your mathematical approach okay so this is where you are concretely and precisely mathematically defining what your problem is after this and this .

Particular paper we also talked about what the data is in our work and that is given a separate subsection now when you talk you when you're given writing of your paper which is based on data it or some data that you've collected using a system what may be good idea to actually present some of the information of this data so that's what these these graphs .

Provide overview of the data so once again if it is a system that you're designing and it's not based on data that you've collected then you can use this to actually motivate provide a high-level overview of the system or what are the shortcomings of an existing system highlight those gaps in this section so that's what we do in these .

Graphs and that's what this table also does now when you then go ahead and provide or show your contribution in this next section which in this case is our smart water prediction framework in section four so one thing that you see here is we draw this diagram so diagrams are very important it provides an overview of system or what we are trying .

To achieve that's what this our diagram is all about it provides everybody what we are trying to do okay now you might have equations in your research as well where you talk about how you go about designing or algorithm or what are the intricacies of your system and that's where you actually write a bunch of equations right like .

The one that we have done here so you give all the details about all this in these sections ok now once again you can see that we have not done with all our pictures and describing our models so we had a couple of models in this paper so we drew these models here so this kind of nice good-looking pictures is what you would also want to put in your paper .

So that it is very easy for the reviewer as well as the reader to understand what you are seeing so pictures speak louder than words so this picture should also give you a good idea of what is your contribution and it should help the reviewer understand what you're trying to do so after you have done all that you'll finally evaluate your system so .

You'll come to performance evaluation so what we have done here is have compared our system with bunch of baselines and this is there's a common theme in general across a bunch of different papers once again you can't have one set formula for all papers but this is common theme so you see here we these our baselines and we clearly .

Mentioned what our baselines are in this work because that's what we are going to compare our system swap with and then you can present your you have to present your results now depending on your research you can use a different kinds of crops or plots to actually illustrate your near results or you can use tables and many times you will use a .

Combination of both so we have used these tables here and those tables will highlight now just to draw the attention of the reviewer and the reader do the performance gains of our system you will see that we have highlighted our performance numbers imported in bold so that it is clear that we are actually beating the baselines and that helps the .

Reviewer while they are reading this paper similarly you will see that we have a bunch of figures now one thing when you plotting figures let's concentrate on this figure out out here when you're drawing this figure you will see that each and every line is distinct it is clearly visible to the to the reader there are different colors you .

See and the colors are distinct we've used different styles so play around with the formatting should write a good script to actually generate these kind of figures you can use your favorite plotting software get it right so that all your figures look uniform and they actually look good and once again we have a few more tables and that's .

Essentially our and profs and that's an essentially our result so this so what I mentioned here is not how you can write any research paper of course there will be differences but this gives you an outline I would like to highlight one more final thing and I would like to reiterate it you when you draw these .

Graphs your graph should be readable when printed so you can see that what we have done the units are all there like gallons in here we have actually clearly mentioned the y and x axes we have pre mentioned the numbers we have mentioned all these and that's and they fit well into this okay and all our figures have good captions which makes it very easier .

Easy to read and we have some separated all our results into different sections so just let's just go back to the performance evaluation so here we were when we are doing the performance evaluation we were using different kinds of metrics for example one of our metrics was our ma theme you don't need to know the metric so you see we .

Actually had a separate section that then for another of her results was ma ma here and you will see that had a separate section for that and we had and then what we did would be also qualitatively validate our results so we had a separate section for this one and we then changed some of the parameters of our system to see how robust our .

System is and that gave rise to these subsections so what were you doing you should would like to do the right is a separate sub sections so that it is very clear to the to the reader what you were trying to do now over so this should give you a high-level overview of how to write a research paper I would like to conclude with one final tip that let's .

Just go so for example let's just pick this paragraph here okay now when you write one paragraph it should give what you are trying to say succinctly for out for that it should you should not ramble on and on about what you were trying to say it should be precise and you should pack in numbers to justify your results and a .

Paragraph should be should not be too long or too short it should be a roughly of this size it could be a little longer a little shorter but that's how you write paragraphs so each paragraphs kind of makes a single point and and only a single point if you're multiple points that you would like to draw the attention of the reader to it might be a .

Good idea to use different paragraphs for those so whenever you're right think this is what you should focus on when you're writing your paper that one paragraph talks about one point the next paragraph talks about one point and then there should be good continuing sentences or fillers between two paragraphs such that when you when the .

Reader is reading you are leading the reader to the next paragraph so I think this is all that I wanted to tell you guys about how to write a research paper of course this video is too short to give all this kind of information but I just wanted to give you an overview so that you could get started and write good research papers of your own thank .



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