Friday, May 27, 2022

AQA A-Level Psychology | Study Livestream | Issues & Debates | Nature vs Nurture

to a place where we don't know this is what we waited for with the lights up dark with my own doubts .

not looking back eyes on the freeway bonnie and clyde a classic cliche we're on the run this is what we waited we'll for it somehow .

Foreign good evening everyone it's jim here at gchq and you can probably see on the screen that we are missing someone but do not worry because i believe that laura is just joining us so let's get .

Laura back on the screen there and we should all be we are all here welcome we are doing so many live streams tonight we've just done business geography we've just launched we've got law coming up in harvard we've got economics later but this is the big one and from the .

Numbers looking on the live stream massive numbers joining us for this uh our first live study stream for psychology for the new year for the new school year so two familiar faces joining us to run this session so we have got laura on the left and lara on the right i'm glad they got that right .

Good afternoon or good evening good evening everyone hi everybody great to see you too and you put another fantastic session together in fact the whole program looks amazing for this term what we're doing this term is we're picking some core topics particularly around sort of issues and debates and biopsych .

To to help students really go back and recap and revise on on some core stuff that's really going to help them particularly year 13 students as they get ready for assessments and mocks and maybe even the real thing next summer it's looking quite likely isn't it so .

This is going to be really easy it would so what we're going to do is we're going to uh we'll get going so just if you've not joined one of these things these sessions before quick bit of admin uh it's a series of activities on screen if you're joining us live you get a chance .

To use the live chat so please do type your answers into the live chat see uh to show uh lara and laura what how much you know and uh we maybe even give some shout outs to those who are first on the on the button for each of the activities we've also got in these sessions some uh some information not sort of exam gold .

And overview information to help you recap we won't spend lots of time on that because of course you'll be able to go back over these videos and pause them and also download all the slides so when this session's finished if you go to tutortu.net forward slash live go to psychology you'll be able to download the whole powerpoint and add .

Whatever you want into your notes in this case on the nature nurture debate and issues and debates so i think that's we're just about there should we should we make a start uh who's going to kick us off is it laura or lara what do you think lara's kicking it off fantastic have fun everyone .

Thanks sam great okay we're going to start off with a 60 second challenge some of you will uh this will be familiar to you some of you not you're gonna have 60 seconds to try and match up abcde with number one two three four and five really do encourage you to have a go pop your answers in the chat box you don't need .

To write the answers out just the letters and the numbers you've got 60 seconds let's go and see how you do great i see we've got some answers here so sam .

Um sam and kay you've got those first two correct really well done um ruth you've got that one correct e as well we've got some really good answers coming through so if we show the answers on screen here you should have nature obviously is innate so innate influences on behavior and development .

Your nurture it should external influences on behaviour and development from the environment hereditary coefficient um i'm not seeing many answers for that one so just to be clear that's the extent to which something is influenced by nature um so if you like another way of explaining that is how much of a trait can be attributable to .

Genetic variants if you like and then examples here social learning really good example of nurture and your testosterone hormones is a really good example of nature and i'd say for this debate definitely have examples for your nature and nurture to illustrate that um in the exam in a test that you have that deeper knowledge as well .

So that was our kind of starter game guys we're just moving on to uh the next life of the nature nurse debate so obviously this is um part of your issues and debates topic this is assessed in paper three now although this is assessed in paper three we do need to remember the issues and debates should be and is encouraged to be utilized in .

All topics uh for evaluation for your ao3 as well but in the issues and debates topics in paper three you can expect to have multiple choice questions application questions short and extended questions as well remember your maximum question here is 16 marks and really it's just a really cool topic .

Useful topic throughout the whole of the a level to utilizing other topics as well so things to be aware of um it is a debate and um one of the key things that we notice in the examiner from examiner reports is students tend to outline the nature side separately and the nurture side separately but said .

Debate it is about the relative contribution of genetics and environments when explaining a behavior so we do need to remember that is a debate um the interactionist approach is also quoting the specification for nature nurture so that is an amalgamation if you like a combination of both nature and nurture impacting um .

On behavior so that's um a really good thing to bring into your ao1 and a03 also as well um revisit previous topics and apply the debate so this is whereby you might use the nature and nurture debate to evaluate other topics in in the specifications to paper one and two as well and three .

And definitely practice your evaluation for the shorter extended questions on the nature nurture debate nature nurtures a really nice um simple debate to kind of play apply to lots of topics um throughout psychology so we're going to give it over to laura now um to give us an overview of the debate and starts on our first game .

Thanks laura yeah so just to reiterate what laura said nature nature a really nice issue and debate that a lot of students like to talk about quite easy to apply to lots of the topics that you've done or will do on your specification but it's also crucial to remember that there is a debate here we've got uh we're almost like we've got .

A team nature and we've got a team nature so the best way to think of these things is what do you think so take something like gender development ocd phobias whether it's something from the year on psychopathology or something from year two where you might do schizophrenia or regression or forensics the time .

Really is to think what what do you believe do you think these things are caused by nature because if you do then you're the team that thinks so things are biological things happen because of prenatal information your genetics your brain your brain structure but if your team nature then you're the people that think that actually all these things are .

Land they're from trauma from experience maybe from watching the telly maybe from seeing what other people do so even though we know in the real world things are a little bit of both and if you are the team that think of things like gender and aggression and serial killers and all that type of stuff they all happen because of a little bit of .

Everything then your team is the interactionist team you're the team that think everything's a bit of everything but for the sake of your exam you need to be able to present the arguments of nature and nature and one thing they'll ask you to do in this section is to think about topics that you have studied or will study so really .

Good ones to link for nature if you want to take some suggestions down if you do gender you've got the chromosomes if you've got ocd and serotonin even down to social releases and attachment when you come and do bone b that's all nature and then if you flip to nature it's things like well social land and theory of anything addiction fruit machines .

Absolutely anything right down to the way the phobias are learned um so we've ever think are you team nature are you teammates you can be team both team interactionists but for the sake of good discussion and essay skills you you want to be able to talk about both so let's move on then and see where things lie so there's a connection wall .

On your screen you've got 16 key phrases but can you separate them into the four groups of four so when you screen you've got 16 squares four of them belong together that'll form one set can you work out the four groups of four and your time starts now let's see your answers on the screen let's go please .

What are you gonna think let's say put your answers on the chat when you've got some ideas do any of these things similar to each other maybe we've got some i'll give you a little nudge have you got anything that you can link biologically anything for nature anything for nature .

Let's see you can find our first set of four so imogen you said teachers family peers media can you tell me why you think they are a set of four so everything genetics nervous system hormones and brain okay i think i can see what you're both going with there i'm not going to tell you whether that's .

Right i want you to tell me why you think that's right sam nervous systems hormones okay so we're finding a couple of biological bunches there so well done if you've got them chevy you think aggression for that mental health and life events all right let's .

Have some answers then let's put you out your misery let's see our first group so well done if you said genetics nervous system hormone and brain region so why is that one set of four well they're all examples of nate chess so they're all those illogical prenatal things that affect our behavior let's have a look at a second one .

And you were right family media peers and teachers all go together because these are all things or people and in this psychology we call the models models that will influence our behavior fabulous imaging well done okay and our fair group are all examples of nature influences so the way that we're brought up trauma .

That we may go through life events and things that we learn and that leaves our last group gender aggression mental health and attachment type they're all relevant topics that you could use like i said before in these questions you do have to often refer to specific topics so there's some suggestions .

To take away well done everybody i think i'm passing you back to laura now okay guys we're going to be doing the bubble quiz now um you're going to have a number of answers that are correct so you're going to have a choice of four and the number of correct answers can range from zero to all four so you've .

Got to identify the correct answer so again encourage you to pop your answers in the chat box let's go over to the first question then so which would be a good example of nature from the specifications so again it could be one answer could be several answers here guys .

So what do we think what is a good example of nature so a b c d you can just type the letters so chevy imogen hazel zoe all saying b good if you feel able to if we can elaborate why that might be an example of nature even better yet a lot of us are saying b yeah might be none of them chew to .

Choose right it might be none of them but i can tell you it is one of them emily we're saying b and d okay tara b it's genetic yep genetic and ocd are biological yeah well done shiver yeah well done let's let's reveal the answer then hazel it's an eight perfect really good answer yes so out of all of these answers this is the .

Example of nature um genetics and ocd is very much coming from a biological standpoint the other three um i know someone put d learning in phobia is very much from our environment okay we're learning learning is from our environment so that is going to be an example of actually nurture not nature so well done those of you that chose b .

For that answer which is pretty much all of you actually yeah you're right you you lot are all on fire let's go over to question number two then so again opposite side now which would be a good example of nurture from the specifications so again just type the letters again it could be more than one it could just be one .

Good so we've got some good answers coming through what do you what do you others think we've got one answer so far a lot of us are saying conditioning and phobias c mercy you're saying a and c and k and tara excellent and emily yeah can we elaborate on that maybe why .

Why is it we think a and c why are they an example of nurture exactly how can we elaborate that how can we explain that yeah um well done c as well a lot of us seem to have got c which is great tara we're saying a and c both learn .

From the environment yeah to choose even saying a and c attachment conditioning and phobias are all learnt yep really really good attachments are formed through the environment yeah excellent excellent answer okay let's put them out there misery .

Let's have a look yeah quite right really nice to see that a lot of you got the correct answer here that's really encouraging well done to you guys so if we look at b and b and d and the reason why they're not an example of nurture they are our nature examples so the brain and ocd is our biological perspective .

The same with testosterone and gender um gender some parts of gender could be argued to be um both nature and nurture um but definitely the obvious ones here are your a and c attachment like you say conditioning excellent we're learning it through reinforcement and conditioning and phobias again we're learning it from .

Environment we are associating and we are maintaining that behavior as well through reinforcement so really good guys for getting forgetting correct answers there let's go over to our last bubble quiz question then number three so which would be a good example of an interactionist approach so maybe a .

Little tougher this one again could be one answer could could be more than one answer so again just type the letters and again if we can do the same as last time guys when you give your letter try and give it an explanation as to why you think it is that one why does that demonstrate interactionist .

So shiva you're saying a and d can we elaborate on that mercy and polly you're saying a okay so an interaction remember it's going to be a combination if you like of nature and nurture remember yeah so ruth you're saying c and b i think emily d d a lot of us are .

Saying d for gender development yeah some of you might not cover gender in in paper three so understandably you might might not completely understand that shiver you've elaborated well done and same with ruth so gender development is typically learned through interactions with those around us the environment good .

See so depression because it can be hereditary but could be triggered by good can be triggered by the environment as well so through stresses perhaps excellent and master characteristics can be interfered with by environmental factors yes some really good answers coming .

Through here guys um let's reveal the answers so the answers here are actually c and d the reason being let's just go from the start social learning approach is very much a nurture perspective okay we are learning from our environment again biological we're looking at genes we're looking at chemicals we're looking .

At hereditary factors so that is going to be our nature only it's depression and gender development which can illustrate our interactionist approach so again with depression bit like the diathesis stress model we may have a genetic vulnerability if you like but we can also have stresses to trigger that gene to be switched on and therefore .

Develop depression gender development specifically if you cover this in paper three guys kohlberg's theory so gender primarily is determined by biology but can be modified by environmental factors such as culture for example so yeah really well done a lot of you got the correct answer there so excellent work .

We're going to pass over to laura now for the next game which is pick a team thanks some fabulous answers there lord i think we need to step this up a little bit and make it a little bit harder so on the screen then i'm going to show you some studies some little snippets of studies and it really doesn't matter whether you see you've .

Seen them before or read about them for this game also i'm going to ask you to do is have a read and decide whether you would use them to support nature nature or the interactionist argument so it's not about what you think which is the hard thing about a debate like this but what do you think the studies are supporting so all i want in the chat is .

A b or c and it would be fantastic if you could put a reason why so here's number one gutsman and shields pooled the results of around 40 family studies and found that the risk increases to 46 for those with two parents who have schizophrenia so true study this isn't fake all these things are real but what do you think about that where .

Would that have a home would it support nature nature or both so rethinks nature because it's suggesting it's hereditary only things a as well ruth thinks nature because it shows the gene being passed on through generations fantastic answer there well done okay we've got mostly a's and the .

Correct answer is a for that one so that would be support in nature and that's focusing on the role of genetics so we know genetics is biology it's prenatal prenatal so definitely nature well done well done everyone who's pointed out the genetic element as well all right next one maguire investigated the hippocampi .

Which is just a tiny part of your brain the volume of it the size of the hippocampi of london taxi drivers brains they found the hippocampus on each side of the brain especially the right hippocampus was larger than taxi drivers in comparison to non-taxi drivers a bit of a tricky one that but what do you think .

What does it support i'm going to give you the clearing as well and tell you that these taxi drivers brains changed after studying the tests to pass and become a taxi driver called the knowledge so rethinks that's nature tara b it was inflicted by the .

Environment okay interesting georgie thinks c as it's adapting through nature and nature so that interactionist element this one's divided everybody here some are thinking all sorts of things interesting answers though tilde thinks it's b okay all right i'm gonna i'm gonna reveal the .

Answer to this one and it's complex no one said issues and debate was easy so the answer for this one would actually be c so well done to a few of you that said c and i'm going to explain why just because i can tell everyone's going to be angry with me it's c because these taxi drivers did something behavioral they had to study and that had an effect .

On the brain so we've got both nature and nature affecting each other it can't just be b it can't just be nature because we've got we're talking about the brain so there's definitely some biology in there as well so for that reason it is the interactionist approach it's both okay next one .

Two more joseph pulled the data for schizophrenia studies conducted before 2001 and found an average concordance rate of 40.4 percent for mz twins which if you're not familiar with is identical twins and seven point four percent for ds twins which is non-identical twins so why would we put .

This in nature does it support nature or interruptionist messy things say because we're talking about genetics again as does hazel okay goods right there's a general consensus to today and you're absolutely right well done it's a because we're back talking about the role of genetics which .

Automatically puts you in nature that's not to say that you can't challenge this study and you're probably all thinking yeah but twins share the same environment they might have the same friends this that the other you're absolutely right but at face value this supports nature let's test one more then so this study might be a familiar one .

Watson and rayner so they studied little albert his behavior with rats and found that when paired with a feared sound little but developed a phobia of the rats what you going for on this last one is it supporting nature nature or the interactionist argument .

So shibby thinks nate check because he learned to fear the rats emily and polly think b as well okay most people saying b um i think said c interesting if you can say why you ma that would be good nature coming through is the competitive answer and the right answer is .

B it is nature and that is just because it was an induced behavior through lane and nothing other than exposure to something classic classical conditioning there as well well done everyone that was quite hard but you've done well let's back over to you laura okay great thanks laura um we're doing .

The picture grid next um i think this is going to be new to a lot of you so let me just explain you're going to see six questions as each question is answered sections of an image are going to be revealed and you've basically got to work out what the image is now as we go through each question um try and answer them as well .

If you can um and then whoever can guess the picture first um when we start getting some correct answers i think you'll probably guess it when we get to maybe the third or fourth i think after having a look at this so let's let's go ahead and reveal um the first question so again type your answers if you think you know the answer to this the nature .

Side of the debate proposes that behaviors are what determined and hereditary what's the missing gap there when we get some answers we'll reveal the picture behind that what do we think that missing word is yeah amy tara .

Yep excellent we yeah we're getting some really good answers kay polly georgie yeah so a lot of us are saying biologically determined so correct let's reveal that one because i can see we're getting that correct not so easy is it that little picture slide there to know what it is let's .

Reveal some more so the nature debate is also known as a what viewpoint what is it also called it could be father christmas to be fair cheetah to you but let's see let's reveal a few more has anyone got the answer for the missing gap here what is nature also known as is another word that we can .

Call this side of the debate also beginning with an n yeah you're not wrong by saying it's deterministic but hazel excellent so hazel's saying nativist a lot of us are saying deterministic you're not wrong at all some of us are saying quite non-pathetic yeah arguably quite a nomathetic um .

Side of the debate as well especially when we're linking that to topics can be quite nomathetic polly you're saying nativist as well yeah the nature debate is also known as a nativist viewpoint so let's reveal that one can anyone .

Muster a guesses this picture yet i'm not sure anyone's going to get it at this point let's try the third question then most nature influences are the results of what over a long period of time i think this is a big giveaway for the picture as well let's see let's see who can get this most nature influences are the .

Result of what over a long period of time shiva you think it's a rat i can tell you now it's not a rat so we got some answers coming through ruth you're saying exposure georgie is saying conditioning oh good guess emily you said bobby it's .

Not bulby is a person but it's not bulby choo-choo thinks it's little albert i think you've got that wrong tutor to you but let's have to wait and see won't we um mr x you're saying exposure any other answers oh zoe good guess it's not pavlov but very good guess wouldn't we've got we've got them all coming out now let's have a look and .

Reveal the answer then so it's evolution most nature influences other resolve evolution over a long period of time oh we're getting some other answers now so amy reeve as well amy well done yeah we got some correct answers coming let's go through the other questions .

Then environmentalists hold the assumption that the human mind is a what what a lot of us think this is darwin i think we've got to reveal a few more to to check that guys any answers here for this one environmentalists hold the assumption that human mind is a what blank slate hazel chevy also blank slate .

Excellent let's reveal that answer yes correct well done all of you that have said that and the interactions approach is the view that both nature and nurture work what to shape human behavior i think that's i think you're going to get this one what's our missing gap here .

Kyrie you said together okay yeah shiva you've said together as well yep excellent i think we're all all in agreement there a lot of you have said together excellent we've got that and let's do the last one then i think we can see who's forming here psychologists argue that both a genetic something and an .

Environmental trigger are required for a psychological disorder to develop what is our missing word here our last one georgie in there first really good predisposition you're saying any other answers imogen you're agreeing polly you're saying vulnerability good .

Yeah zoe you're also the same vulnerability we've got some predispositions as well let's reveal that answer then predisposition but yeah vulnerability same same but different so let's review our last picture slide there yet quite right i think a lot of you got this some kind of .

The third or fourth go didn't you so this is in actual fact charles darwin here okay so really really good guys really good guesses there all right we're gonna move on to some exam practice now now this question here um what i would like you to do is i'd like you to actually type the influence of nature in the stem and .

The influence of nurture in the stem so the stem here is research suggests that depression runs in from the family however many depressed people also have other issues including social problems or problems with drink or drugs despite these challenges many depressed people overcome their depression and find ways to resolve .

Their issues so answers that i would like is one influence of nature in the stem and one influence of nurture in the stem so what can we identify in the stem that is nature to start with let's do the nature one first .

Anything that screens nature and stem to anyone bruce in there first so nature runs in the family good nature is shown research suggests depression it runs in the family yeah a lot of us yeah a lot of us picking the same section out of the stem here runs in the family .

Genetics and family by mr x yeah excellent runs in the family yes so let's reveal that yes so quite correct guys really well done for for recognizing that and when you are actually answering this particular exam question um with reference to the stem uh as good practice i would always try and quote that section of the stem when .

You're asked to identify the influence of nature on the behavior and explain why that is nature as as a lot of you have done there in the chat and done so quite well let's have a look at the nurture influence on behavior and so can anyone pick out any nurture influences in the .

Stem here and i give you a clue potentially there's more than one link here in the stem for nurture so chevy in their first sorry no tara problems with drink or drugs yep people have other issues suggest depression may be caused by environmental factors really good .

Elaboration there chevy ruth nurture social problems problems with drinks or drugs yeah a lot of us have pointed to the drinks and drugs social problems suggest external influences well done imogen social issues again problems with drinks and drugs yeah .

Really good we're linking this really really well guys let's highlight our nurture influences then in the stem here so we have got yet social problems a lot of you picked that out the drink or drugs and again another thing i don't think anyone's quite said this yet but this empire here despite the .

Challenges many depressed people overcome their depression they find ways to resolve it um so that might be through therapy behavioral activation but they find a way to resolve it that's got nothing to do with nature that is to do with nurture influences so really well done most of you got those first two stem links there so that's .

Really really good perfect okay let's move on into our exam gold so i think we mentioned this at the start of the session so if you missed it really what's a really good exercise to be doing and really encourage you to do and you will be expected to make sure as laura said before to link the nature and .

Nurture debate to other topics you really should be going through your topics you've studied thus far and going forward and practice applying this debate to them and obviously not forgetting because it is in the spec guys that you include and consider the interactionist approach because often enough .

As laura said we may side with one side of the debate more when it comes to a topic but we must remember there are a huge amount of topics that indicate that actually there is an interaction between both nature and natural remember if there's evidence to suggest that something can be explained by both nature and nurture we .

Really want to be bringing in the fact that an interactions approach might be the best approach here and that is acting as an evaluation point especially if you're using the interactions approach for let's say the biological approach because that would be a weakness the biological approach is only explaining it from that perspective from .

A nativist perspective when there might be evidence for that behaviour to also be explained via the nurture approach as well in terms of additional support going forward guys really encourage you to have a look on the tutor to your website we've got such an extensive range of resources um to study we've got notes .

We've got revision booklets we've got examination revision booklets as well and do feel free to scan that qr code it will take you directly to those resources or you can search them in the tutor to you um website search bar as well so as jim said at the start this powerpoint is going to be available for you guys to download .

And that is the end of the session i really hope you've all found it super super helpful as a bit of a topic revision blast as it were yeah brilliant laura laura fantastic yeah i've just posted the link to where you can download the slides whilst you've been going through that last activity amazing answers by the way .

I've just double checked that the the powerpoint slides are ready to go i think they should be live in a minute or two just uploading those with the latest version of this session uh so wow we're up and running aren't we we've got uh a whole series of these sessions scheduled for the same time it's gonna .

Be a regular session here at uh what time is it 5 30 on a tuesday yep 5 30 on a tuesday and we'll be continuing with issues the schedule and the topics i think are on the website aren't they they're all there they're all there so you can see what's coming up live of course if you .

Subscribe to the youtube channel you get a notification as soon as any additional sessions are added which would be great if you've enjoyed the session because you've done really well then please give laura and lara a thumbs up on the the youtube console there that they get paid by the thumbs up as well .

Which is uh so that's that's that's a good reason to give this session a thumbs up but it also helps suggest this this session to other aqa psychology students uh and uh well fantastic uh we are back again uh this time next week for the next live session don't forget we've got lots of .

Other subjects going on you've just missed geography but yeah never mind but we've also got sociology economics law politics history business economics loads of them so we'll take a look at the full program i think everyone managed with all them these answers tonight have been amazing considering it's like well week two of .

The academic year like i'm pretty impressed do you think we just need to sort of raise the level to sort of really really hard rather than just hard what do you think yeah i think next week i'll make a tougher session what do you think yeah i think so because i've got most of the answers right uh .

I was i'll be i was just copying all the superstars who were typing answers into the live chat i knew i knew someone would say father christmas and and i should have known it would be you brad anyway awesome stuff guys we're gonna have to sign off there uh to allow the law the a-level law team in so a big thanks to everybody and .

We'll see you soon thanks guys see you next time everybody cheers

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