The term periodization is often thrown around when discussing resistance training however it is not always a very well understood concept and it will be applied differently depending on what training goals we are referring to so in this video we will discuss how periodization of training will differ between strength versus hypertrophy .
Training first we need to define what exactly periodization means essentially periodization in the most literal sense refers to breaking training up into periods or blocks of training with different training goals this is usually achieved by taking the training cycle or year splitting it into phases and .
Further breaking this down into mesocycles or blocks of training traditionally each phase has a specific training quality we are trying to develop and each block is a small step towards achieving this goal however modern sport science and practice has developed over time to a point where periodization doesn't always refer to .
This specific method of planning rather a more loose definition of periodization is probably more applicable so for this video we will simply define the term periodization as the long-term management of training variables so we aren't referring to any specific model or type of periodization here rather we are simply defining it as any form of .
Long-term management which could take multiple forms now that we understand what periodization means in a general sense let's now explore how it can be applied to both strength and hypertrophy training to understand how periodization applies to each training goal we first need to .
Understand the adaptations we are trying to achieve let's now cover what exactly hypertrophy and strength are from a physiological perspective first we have muscle growth this simply refers to an increase in the size of a muscle primarily occurring via an adaptation that we call hypertrophy .
Hypertrophy is basically an increase in the size of the muscle fiber cells resulting in an overall bigger muscle hypertrophy is essentially a technical term for muscle growth so for this video muscle growth and hypertrophy can be used synonymously we could go into much more detail about how this occurs from a cellular level but it isn't really .
Relevant for this video the important thing to understand here is that hypertrophy is a structural adaptation meaning it is something that occurs at the local muscle tissue strength on the other hand is a performance outcome strength is solely focused on how much weight can be lifted strength doesn't care about what your .
Physique looks like the only goal here is to lift the most amount of weight possible it should also be understood that strength is specific to our goals this means we must train specifically for a certain lift or multiple lifts in most cases this refers to the power lifts the squat bench press and deadlift performed for a single repetition or a .
One rep max the important thing to understand here is that unlike hypertrophy strength is a performance outcome not a structural adaptation so now that we understand the difference between strength and hypertrophy let's now cover how to best train for each goal .
First let's explore how to train for muscle growth like we mentioned there is only one adaptation we are after when aiming to build muscle and that is hypertrophy as a very general summary here are the variables which tend to be most important for muscle growth first is proximity to failure when training for .
Muscle growth we want to take each set close to failure to ensure the target muscle is maximally stressed next is the rep ranges and loads used for muscle growth we can train anywhere from as little as around 6 reps up to around 20 reps per set as long as we are training close to failure we also want to train with fairly high .
Volumes we generally find that more volume tends to result in superior muscle growth assuming our training quality remains high and the last important variable to maximize muscle growth is lifting technique we want to use a technique which maximally stresses the target muscle this means exposing the muscle to a biomechanical .
Disadvantage lifting with full range of motion and a controlled eccentric tempo as a general guide this will be the most effective training strategies to maximize muscle growth next let's talk about training for strength now unlike muscle growth there are actually more than one adaptation .
That will contribute to strength gains there are three primary adaptations which will contribute to maximal strength these are hypertrophy neural efficiency and technical efficiency however neural and technical efficiency are basically trained in the same way so we've combined them into one category for the sake of this video let's now .
Cover how to best train for each adaptation first let's discuss hypertrophy hypertrophy will contribute to strength gains by increasing the amount of muscle tissue that can contribute to force production if we have more contractile tissue in the muscles which can contribute to a lift then there are .
Simply more units to contract and pull on the joints a simple analogy to explain this would be that having more people in a tug-of-war contest which is analogous to having more muscle tissue helps to pull with more force we have already discussed the best methods to train for hypertrophy in the previous section and this is exactly the same .
When training to improve strength too so as a quick summary we want to train close to failure within the approximate 6 to 20 rep range with high volumes and strict technique next let's discuss how to best train for the other contributing adaptations to strength which are neural and technical efficiency these are two slightly .
Different adaptations but are essentially maximized in the same way which is why we've grouped them together neural efficiency is the ability for the nervous system to produce more force with the given muscle mass we have this is achieved via a few different mechanisms but the details of this aren't really important for this video .
We just need to understand that we can train a muscle to become stronger without actually making it bigger technical efficiency on the other hand refers to making our technique more biomechanically efficient over time we can learn to leverage the load in a more efficient manner meaning that less work is required to perform the same movement .
Pattern this is achieved by manipulating the positions and the angles of our limbs and torso and altering the path that the bar travels so to maximize both of these adaptations the training methods are essentially the same essentially we want to follow the principle of specificity meaning .
Training should be similar to the competition demands this means lifting with the specific exercises that you want to get stronger at so if you want to get stronger at the squat bench press and deadlift you will need to perform those lifts in the same way as they are performed in competition this also means lifting with heavy loads .
To maximize neural and technical efficiency we need to practice lifting heavy weights somewhere in the one to five rep range and lastly lifting technique is important to improve maximal strength here we want to lift in a way that allows us to lift the most weight possible within the constraints of what is legal in competition so we .
Don't really care which muscles are being stressed more than others we just want to lift the most amount of weight possible so as a general guide this is usually considered the most effective methods to develop neural and technical efficiency so now that we understand the fundamentals of strength and hypertrophy .
Training we can finally explore how training can be periodized to maximize each training goal first let's look at periodization of strength training essentially we want to periodize our training in a way that allows us to lift the most amount of weight at a certain point in time this would usually be for a competition if .
You're a strength athlete or it could just be to test your 1rms for a casual lifter either way we need a definitive time to peak so that we can plan training in the correct time frame once we have this time frame established we can then start to plan our training essentially we want to emphasize hypertrophy earlier in the training .
Cycle and emphasize neural and technical efficiency later in the training cycle this will build a foundation of muscle mass which can then be used to maximize efficiency when we need to peak this can be achieved by manipulating the following variables earlier in the training cycle we want to implement variations of the competition .
Lifts not the exact same movement we want to choose exercises which are better for training the prime movers of the lift and those with lower joint stress then as we transition closer to our time to peak we want to implement the specific lifts that you want to get stronger at exactly as they are .
Performed in competition for example a lifter may implement a high bar full range of motion back squat earlier in the training cycle and transition to a low bar competition style squat closer to their peak these lifts should also be performed with different rep ranges based on where we are in the cycle .
Earlier in the cycle we want to lift with higher rep ranges in the approximate 8 to 12 rep range to emphasize muscle growth then as we get closer to our peak we should perform lower rep ranges with heavier loads in the one to three rep range to maximize efficiency training volume will also differ between .
Phases earlier in the cycle we probably want to perform more sets for the primary lifts to maximize muscle growth and closer to our peak we want to perform less volume because we simply cannot handle many sets when lifting with very heavy loads and also to reduce fatigue so that we are in a fresh state and lastly accessory lifts to train the .
Prime movers should always be present but in different amounts earlier in the cycle more accessory lifts should be implemented to maximize hypertrophy this can be achieved by either doing more total exercises for the muscle group or by doing more sets of the same exercises then later in the training cycle we want to do fewer .
Accessory lifts or less volume of each lift so we can allocate more energy to the competition lifts next let's discuss how to periodize hypertrophy training this is where many people often get confused periodization doesn't really apply to muscle growth in the same way this is because like we mentioned at the beginning of the video .
Hypertrophy is a structural adaptation not a performance outcome this means that there is no time to peak we just want to keep growing muscle over time so rather than having a specific method of periodizing training we basically just want to try and get the best stimulus possible at all times training may still change over time but .
There is no change in what adaptations we are trying to emphasize trainees should strive to always improve their training methods over time by manipulating exercises volume technique and more but this is always done in response to how they are looking feeling and progressing not in a planned sequence .
So as a summary let's overview what we have covered first it should be understood that strength and hypertrophy are two different adaptations strength is a performance outcome where the goal is to lift the most amount of weight possible while hypertrophy is a structural adaptation where the goal is .
To increase the size of the muscle so although they are interrelated to some extent they are ultimately different outcome goals to maximize strength we want to periodize training in a way to peak at a specific time of the year each cycle should start by emphasizing hypertrophy adaptations and then shifting to a more neural and technical .
Efficiency emphasis as we get closer to our time to peak hypertrophy on the other hand isn't a performance outcome so there is no time to peak so trainees don't really need to periodize training at least not in the traditional way rather trainees should simply adjust training over time in response to how they look feel and progress and always .
Try to provide the best hypertrophic stimulus possible thanks for watching and hopefully you got something out of this video check out flowhighperformance.com for online coaching training templates ebooks and more