Wednesday, August 10, 2022

Art & Culture: Salient features of Nagar & Dravida Architecture | Nagar VS Dravida style | Explained

Hello guys welcome to study iq i am safir in this session we are going to make a comparison between nagara style of temple architecture and the dravida style of temple architecture so basically we are going to compare the south indian style of temple architecture and the north indian style of temple architecture so this is going.

To be a very important topic as such the comparison they can ask you in mains and they can also ask you the question within prelims as well so you need to have a very good clarity about the south indian temple architecture and the north indian temple architecture which is nagara style as well as style so what we will do is we will.

First talk about the stages of development and we will see what was the three different stages of development in nagara style or or the north indian temple architecture and then we will talk about the four stages of development in the uh south indian temple architecture so.

That's about the stages of development and then we will discuss what exactly this nagara style is all about and then what is all about and we also have to discuss the variations that's when the comparison is going to be complete but i will be discussing that in the next session so we will be comparing the uh variations of nagara style like we'll.

Talk about odisha style we'll talk about the chandela style we'll talk about the solanki style of the gujarat style and when it comes to variations of bravada style that is the vijayanagar and then the nayaka style so these five i will be discussing together separately as the variations of nagara as well as okay so that i will be doing in the next.

Session so today i will be talking about the stages of development of north indian and south indian temple architecture three stages in north indian four stages in south india and then exactly what is tagara and dragon style with the diagram in fact we have done this so it is going to be very easy for.

Me rather than you know i don't want to write anything just before i have done this video already so everything is there with me in the system so i don't want to write anything so guys let's start with the stages so when we talk about the stages of development i will be starting with temple architecture in north india.

So there are three stages as i have told you the first stage you will see it's like a flat roof square temple so square temple like you can see in this diagram you need to draw the diagram in each of the cases remember and you also need to write examples for each of the cases and i'll be discussing examples also for each of the cases and this is.

What you need you don't want to read anything else beyond this for this particular topic both for problems as well as names it's a waste of time because anyway we are putting that effort so you can save your time at least when you are spending this 20 minutes or 25 minutes with me so that's flat roof square temple.

That is the first stage and shallow pillared approach what do you mean by shallow pillar the pillows you can see here the pillows but these are not uh in depth pillars for the strength or the it is just for decoration purpose okay so it is not that in-depth pillar for giving the strength to the structure so.

Law platform it is made on a law platform and example that we can discuss for this is temple number 17 sanchi and then the kankali devi temple tikkawa so just remember that so here the diety will be kept like that so the first stage second stage you will see that flat roof square temple will be continued but.

There will be changes in the pillar so there the pillar is going to be strong and in depth pillar to give strength to the architecture that means the structure okay and that's the difference so and it will be made on an appraised platform so let me show you that so flat roof square type it is continued.

And the in-depth pillars are there for supporting the structure to give the strength to the structure and an appraised platform earlier it was low platform now there is ambulatory passage around the sanctum and sanctorum that's the garbage right that's where the deity of the temple is kept and i've told about this panchayat and style right in.

That tanjayatan style one plus four way is how you keep the gods the main diet the main goat and the subsidiary code so the around the main goat you will have an ambulatory uh passage okay and then you can talk about the this as the example parvati temple najna.

So this is how it is and the pillars are strong here now the third stage if you see the second stage whatever is there that will be continued that means it will be flat roof okay and then there will be a curvy linear tower which is going to be attached with this like you can see here flat roof and here the.

Dirty will be there and this is the curvy linear tower which is going to be attached and this curvy linear tower is what you call as shikhara okay so this is shikhara and this is marking or starting the beginning of nagara style of temple architecture so when you see the nagara style you will be seeing that shikhara.

Example vishnu temple at the yogurt brick temple okay so these are two examples which you can write so for each of the three cases i have given the diagram for each of the three cases i have given the example i've given the content also so if you get a question it means you can probably explain very well the stages of development of temple.

Architecture in north india and the third style led to the nagarastra let's talk about nagara style now how it look like see guys already i have told you it is made in an appraised platform so this is what your appraised platform you can see here this is your appraised.

Platform perfect so a place platform is there and then there are stairs to go to the top and in that appraised platform you will have prayer halls which is known as mandaps so there are mundus okay that is a prayer hall and then there are pillars also you can see these are pillars which gives strength to the temple.

And that that curvy linear structure is what you call as shikhara you can see the shikhara also there and as i've told you around daity the sanctum and sanctorum garbage you will be finding the uh ambulatory passage so you can see that circular passage is there.

And then you will be seeing this as the um that's where some religious symbol will be kept okay so kailash so this is what actually you need to know it's an appraised platform since it's in a place platform there will be stairs and on top of that there will be prayer heart which is called as munda there will be pillars.

There will be daity which is kept on the god in that one plus four style there will be one main code and then there will be four subsidiary code also and then there will be uh ambulatory passage around the sanctum and sanctuary however the deity is actually kept okay and then shikhara that is the curvy linear structure.

So this is about the nagara style let's look into the features if you see the features i hope this is very clear with you shikhara it is there which is a curvy linear tower on top of the flat roof okay and then you have a covered ambulatory passage ambulatory passages in and around the.

Uh sanctum and sanctorum or the garbhagriha so that the followers can come and take a circle around the god okay that's the objective and panchayat and style i have already explained there will be five god concept the five gods will be placed out of which one main goat and then four subsidiary goats will be there so.

That's how it is and then absence of water tank why i'm specifying that is because when it comes to the south indian architecture absence of water tank is a feature specific feature so here in north india or in nagara style you see 95 absence of water time the exception is.

In the solanki style in gujarat i'll be discussing about that later where you will find some massive stepped water tanks and then some kind of small small deities and temples will be kept in that steps also okay so and then the crucified ground plant which you will see in dravida also okay so crucified ground plant.

Now guys variations i will be discussing later in fact i have done this discussion variation also i'll compare it together along with odisha school chandela school and shalangi with vijayanagar and the mayaka strike so i'm not going to discuss that in this session so let's quickly now go to the uh.

Temple architecture in south india so as we discussed already the north indian temple architecture we saw three stages here we will see four stages and the four stages are actually named after the four rulers at that point of time okay so if you see the most important ruler was mahendra verma first during.

680 6th century 80 okay so the temple architecture in south india is starting during 680 during mahindra government's period so just remember one thing guys now here it is going to start during mahindra verma time that's that's the sixth century a.d now north india it flourished and it already uh going on.

During which period gupta period right so gupta period came to an end by around 550 a.d so the temple architecture already uh started three stages are over and flourished in north india already but in south india it is going to start by 680 only so which is the oldest.

Architecture if you see it is north indian it's not south indian i have seen some of the books have wrongly mentioned about this and if you have read anywhere it is south indian temple architecture is the oldest no that's not true it is in northern you can simply compare right it was in the gupta period gupta period came to an end.

By 550 a.d and then here temple architecture is starting from mahindra verma time that comes from 600 a.d only so that itself will give you the clarity about this so temple architecture if you see the oldest is north indian style or the nagara style perfect that is something which you need.

To keep in mind because i've seen this wrong information in some of the test series and some of the textbooks also so four different stages named after four different rulers like mahindra varma stage narasimhan stage raja simha stage and then nandi verma stage so you can see here the four stages like there will.

Be a hill and that hill it will be cut and made a cave so the first stage is nothing but a cave and in that cave you will be keeping some idols and the images of the deity and uh you know you don't call it as temple rather you call it as munda no don't be confused with the mandate that i have discussed before that was the prayer hall so here.

The entire structure that is what known as okay now here this rock cut cave from the hill so that's it there is nothing more that is the first taste that is a mahindra varmint stage and in the second stage the very same cave the same will be decorated will be modified so interior you will be doing.

Some kind of decoration like this this you will be doing some decorations and exterior also you will be refined okay so this kind of some kind of structure will be given so if you look into the first one it is perfectly a cave right carved out in a hill second also it is in the same area but it got a look and feel of a temple though it's in this.

Hill only it's not in a plane area it's not separately constructed it is carved out from the hill and which is a cave which is modified but still it got a look and feel of a temple for the first time first it was cave now it got that look and feel of a temple like some kind of structure you got that is the narasimha stage and they.

Started calling this as radhas so example dharmaraj name is actually okay and the third stage you will be finding some structure like this that is the rajas in her stage and this is a separately built that means you came out of the cave now and it is in the plain area a proper structure of the.

Temple is made it's in the plane area separately constructed not carving out a hill not like a cave not modifying or decorating a cave no it's a separate construction so example shaw temple and kailash not temple at kanchipuram shore temple mahabalipuram and then kailash math temple.

That's kanchipuram okay now this start the beginning of dhravidas style if you compare there you had only three stages the third stage led to the development of nagara style here we have four stages and in that the third stage actually led to the development of dravida style okay now the fourth stage is just uh flourish.

You know a lot of small small temples are actually came up that is the nandi vermin stage more and more number of small small temples have come up in the fourth stage now if you look into the dravida style of temple architecture i'll explain that with the help of a diagram just like what we have done in case of nagara style so the diagram will.

Goes like this so you can see a big premise which is having a bigger boundary wall so this is your boundary wall can you see that the bigger boundary or outer boundary wall will be there and this is bigger gateways okay and that is known as gopuras gopuras the gateways are called as gopuras and then there are prayer.

Hall earlier the prayer halls were called as mundus here this is a prayer hall and then i've told you there will be presence of water tank in the temple not in nagara style there's a specific feature of south indian architecture temple architecture or the dravida style there will be water tanks and that's for the rituals performance of the rituals.

And before that you have to wash your you have to clean up yourself like washing your hands and uh maybe you take bath also so for that purpose uh for the ritual purpose actually the water tank is there okay and then this is your sanctum and sanctorum that is garbage this this one is your garbage.

And you can see these four dieties can you see these are four dieties which are kept so inside the garbage there will be the main goat main diety and then near to that the four other subsidiary deities or the gods will be kept so these are subsidiary shrines and then there will be small passage this is a small passage because you.

Don't encourage people to enter in south india they don't end you they don't allow you to enter okay so that is what you call as antarel that small passage it's a small passage and then sculpture of dwark is actually kept here this is the sculpture of dwarf you see the nagara style the sculpture of middle and then river ganga yamuna etc they are.

Kept okay so here sculpture of dwarf remember here also they follow the punjab and style okay don't forget that in both case they follow punjayathan style so this top you can see that is a pyramidal structure which is known as vimana earlier in the nagara style you see that shikhara which is a curvy linear structure here it is vimana.

And it is a pyramidal structure there is no curve at all it goes like this it's a pyramidal structure so vimana pyramidal structure in ravida in nagara it is shikhara which is a curvy linear structure in the i'll show you this one separately also so guys i hope everything i've explained these subsidiary shrines and taro.

Sculptures of dwarf gopura's prayer hall water tank boundary wall so this i hope is very very clear to all of you okay so if you compare the punjabi and stylus there which is common and then what is common instead of vimana there it was shikhara and then.

The prayer hall here they are also prayer hall which is known as mandib and the sculptures are kept here which is of dwarf they are also the sculptures which is of river ganga etc and yeah ambulatory passages there here also there also.

So these are things like this is what the vimana so can you see this is exactly the pyramidal structure and on top some kind of that symbol is also there okay so this is a pyramidal structure you won't find any curve at any part of this features if you see panchayat and style that is a similarity crucified ground.

Planet which is also a similarity in both you will find the crucified ground plan and then water tank was just again specific feature of south indian style and then outside boundary walls okay this is again a skeptic because you face threat from outsiders so you can you know keep your thing safely in the temple so you keep a.

Bigger outside boundary also and then vimana which is pyramidal structure gopura that is a gateway dwarf sculpture i think everything i've explained right okay and then ganga konda cholapuram which was developed by rajendra first who's the son of raja raja first.

Rajaraja first developed that brahadeshwara okay so in thousand eleven eighty okay and then there will be nadaraja sculpture this is something now the sub schools that vijayanagar nayaka style that i will be.

Discussing along with the sub schools of nagara separately i will cover that because i want to cover those five together like odisha chandela solanki vijayanagar nayaka and after that i will cover the other two forms which is left out apart from north indian and south indian two other forms also left out that will be.

Covered in the next session so i hope you understood and i hope i gave a quick revision without wasting the time normally i used to write so i think uh you may take a lot of time right but now today unnecessarily we didn't waste time and we have discussed a lot of information without.

Wasting much time as i have things already with my system okay so guys if you like the video give me a thumbs up and see you soon in the next session thank you so much for watching guys

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