Wednesday, August 10, 2022

OCR J277 GCSE Computer Science Sample Paper 1 Walkthrough

Hello and welcome to an exam walkthrough of the ocr gcse sample paper one so this is a sample paper meaning it's not an actual past paper it was created by the example to give some idea as to what a real exam paper would look like at the time recording this is the only.

Paper available on ocr's website because there haven't been any live exams yet if you're watching a few years time there might be some exams you can try as well but this is a sample paper so we'll be going through it and giving you some model answers talking through things like exam technique and bringing up some misconceptions you.

Might come across to try and help you out with your revision for this qualification now because this is the only paper really available to you openly i would really suggest if you haven't tried it already yourself please do because there are not many chances.

To have a go at a a realistic exam paper so ideally you will try this paper on your own in silence for an hour and a half which is how long it lasts for and you do your best and see how you do because that's really useful information for you it's a really useful experience just.

Watching me go through it without you having tried it yourself may not be as useful as doing it yourself then maybe watching this to see how you did the paper itself andrew martin's scheme will be on ocr's website although i'll put a link in the description as well i would suggest if you do try it you do.

Market yourself so using format scheme not just my vid not just this video because i'm not going to cover every single point on the market scheme and it's a useful experience looking at a market scheme trying to see how exactly an examiner would be giving marks or not giving marks to your.

Answers now because this exam was not actually sat by anybody there aren't any gray boundaries great boundaries are produced after all the marking is done and the exam board can do some analysis and because this wasn't set by anybody there is not any analysis to be done so what we can do is have some sort of.

Indicative gray boundaries some sort of guidelines some possible great boundaries to use in case you want to mark it and see how you did so generally we would say sort of you know 90 would be about nine eighty percent is an eight and going down and quite a straightforward pattern.

As you can see so that can be useful i've worked out the actual marks which correspond to each percentage at this point it's out of 80 marks as paper as we'll mention in a minute um so if you want to mark it you can compare your marks to the grade using this it's just a guideline i can't.

Promise it's going to be how it will be when you actually said it yourself because no one can know until the exam has been set right let's have a quick look at this front page before we begin our questions because you know you'll be you can imagine yourself sat in the exam hall.

Reading through this and it's good to have a bit of a head start and know what to expect so first of all this paper is called computer systems out of our two exam papers you have to do this is the theoretical one so just pretty standard pretty normal exam paper.

Covering hardware software data representation networking security and impacts i'm i think i've covered all of the content there i might have missed one on one topic off um i so i should say that i have covered all of this content if you want to learn it i want to revise it.

I've got a playlist which covers all of the content you need for this exam paper there'll be a link in the description so i'd recommend watching those if you are not sure on some of this content this paper is worth 50 of your grades the other half comes from your other exam which is.

On programming mostly and problem solving so for this particular paper and same with paper too actually you have an hour and a half to do this exam so 90 minutes and you can't use a calculator that's quite important don't bring one into the exam you'll get it confiscated there will be.

Some maths and paper ones especially in the binary data wrap topic but it shouldn't be too hard especially if you have practiced it quite a lot beforehand you have to fill in some information it will be quite straightforward you'll be given a center number and candidate.

Number on the day you put your first name last name in full and last things to say really going to use black ink any other color may not show up when it's scanned so just don't risk it don't use another color and in total this exam is out of 80.

Marks so 80 marks which gives you like i say 50 of your grade now that's interesting because it's 80 marks and we have an hour and a half to do this in 90 minutes which means if we're following the pretty standard technique of.

Spending about a minute per mark it means we have 10 minutes spare at the end so you've got 10 minutes back at the end in order to do some checking of your previous answers which is such a key aspect of exams you've got to make sure you have enough time even if it's only five.

Minutes to go back over and check your answers because there will be mistakes i guarantee it everyone makes mistakes i'm sure when i edit this video i'll notice mistakes i've made that's why checking is so important and the last thing to say which i almost.

Forgot to mention is this little bullet point here about quality of rent communication so this paper is quite straightforward there aren't sections it just has some short questions some medium questions there'll be one long question which means one eight marker towards the end and that a marker will.

Be a qwc question quality and communication so have a little asterix and it means you will have to make sure your spelling is correct it makes sense you're not doing a bullet points etcetera but we'll come back to that when we come across it okay let's start with.

Question one which makes sense um so we're given specification of two cpus computer one computer two we'll look at the stats in a second but we're told for part a when running a 3d flight simulator compute21 is likely to run faster than computer two and we must use these info this.

Information to identify one reason for this only one mark identify is just giving one point nothing much needed here so let's have a look first of all the clock speed is actually lower in computer one than computer two the clock speed determines how many.

Instructions are being processed per second and so looking just at this factor computer one is slower than computer two but it's not the only factor of course cache is also a factor but the cache is the same so we can't mention this or clock speed so we must be able to.

Mention the number of cores which is bigger in computer one than computer two has more cores double in fact so a core is really almost like a cpu within a cpu it's another processor really so it will have an alu and it will have potentially have a control unit as well and registers and cache potentially too.

So each core this is our four cores in computer one can do an instruction at any given time so we could have four instructions being done at one time in parallel as opposed to two in computer two so it can do twice as many instructions per second more cause is.

Is good so we can write it down that's what we need to write really it's got more chords don't need to explain it because it's an identified question the reason why it's better is like i say you can do more at once with a flight simulator quite an intensive program lots of.

Maths going on lots of rendering lots of inputs potentially to this game simulator and it would take up a lot of processing having more cause it would be beneficial bear in mind that you would not be guaranteed to have twice as many instructions done per second because of a clock speed being different but also because.

You cannot ever totally optimize for parallel processing there'll be some efficiency loss and some programs can't do things in parallel there might be some aspects of a simulator which actually can't be done in parallel because they are dependent on previous processes.

So chords are more chords are better but not always as good as they seem okay for part b we need to identify two other parts of a computer but not in figure one which can improve the performance of the computers so really here you can mention pretty much any component i would say let me think except maybe.

Rom and accept maybe registers now some people might let you write these but i personally wouldn't write either because rom does a very small function in your computer very important one it allows you to boot up your computer but make it bigger or faster.

Or some other adaptation is not really do much i would argue and registers are really important too very small bits of memory inside your computer inside your processor i should say again making a bigger or fast it just won't have much effect because they are already very small.

And very fast but we could say we could say things like ram so having more ram or faster ram would be beneficial doesn't say what is improvement so i can just say ram but speed of ram size around it would be better also maybe our storage let's say having an ssd would be.

Beneficial it's a fast bit of storage having one of those would be would be good also we could say things like a gpu we could say improving your motherboard we could say getting a better sound card a sound card is like a gpu but for sound so a processor just for sound.

Sound guard sound card a gpu is a processor just for processing visual information and that'd be very useful in particular for a flight simulator with loads of stuff going on okay and now one reason why the cache size affects the performance of the cpu and it's an explained question i missed.

It off for some reason explaining why it affects performance for two marks so why does it i explain that reason so um the bigger the cache size for more instructions the more data can be stored in it and it will choose to store the most frequently accessed data and.

Instructions and cache is faster than your ram and so bigger cache means things get transferred faster which is a good thing so let's start by stating our reason before we explain it so instructions and data can be transferred to the cpu more quickly and why is this well it's because.

Cache is faster than ram and that's probably sufficient for two marks here we've stated a point i explained it but let's just be quite clear here but the fact that making it bigger i mean a bigger cache size means more instructions and data can benefit from this increased speed so i've slightly run out of space here which is another.

Great shows you've written a bit too much usually you'll be careful not to write any additional words outside of your margins in particular here it's probably okay but anywhere too far away from your answer might not get seen by the examiner.

Now for part d we need to identify two events which take place during the fetch execute cycle lots of things we can mention here um but only two marks here which is nice so first of all let's talk about fetch shall we what happens during fetch well the next instruction is is.

Received by the cpu from memory okay so rewriting that tiny bit so i was quite clunky and how i said that but for an instruction we want to execute comes to the cpu from memory or i should say maybe primary storage is how oc i like to call it but by memory i mean ram rom cache now we could also say for.

Fetch you know we are using the program counter to get the next address to be fetched and that address will get stored in your memory address register the mar also instruction coming to your cpu will get stored initially in your mdr memory data register so we could save.

Those points as well for pc program counter has to get incremented has to get increased afterwards um but those are a little bit more complex to write about i suppose so let's do another easy one for a second point we've got decode decode for fetch where we are trying to.

Make sense of our instructions but execute is where we actually carry out the instruction so it's carried out either by the alu or the control unit so the control unit can do some basic instructions like copying moving stuff around lu is for maths and boolean logic as well.

So we can also execute you know other data may get fetched if it needs to be used in calculation results get stored in the accumulator before potentially getting written back to memory so we could say those sort of things as well now for our second question nina wants to transfer photos.

From a digital camera to an external secondary storage device define what is meant by secondary storage so contrast with primary storage which i as a habit call main memory because that's what it really is that's what most people of world call it ocr callet primary storage.

Um but primary storage is your ram and rom and sometimes cache depending on how you classify it um also called main memory as i say now secondary storage is really your hard drive your ssd your cd for example so what it is is our long term so it's our long-term.

Persistent storage and by persistent i really mean it's fair for the long term but it is non-volatile so we could say about two persistent aka non-volatile because even though rom is not volatile ram is and you can't have secondary storage which is which is volatile.

Because it defeats a point i think it's worth just adding something along the lines of precision storage of files or data or something like that just so we know so we're clear of what exactly is being stored there's only one mark so it should be fine now probably identify the three.

Common types of storage nina can choose from easy question hopefully so i still say these actually so we've got first of all magnetic i don't know i'm sticking with gray it's a bit miserable magnetic storage like a hard drive so a hard disk drive would be magnetic and don't write down that in brackets.

That's just me putting notes down uh we also have got uh solid state storage like an ssd solid state storage also called flash memory you could say that too and our third one is optical storage so like a cd now these are our types they're not exactly they're not devices.

If it said give free examples of storage devices you would not write these you'd write hard drive ssd cd but these are our types of storage i don't think you can really get away with writing anything else to be honest here and and for c we need to state full.

Characteristics of secondary storage devices which that nina should consider when choosing a device so where i i showed him a video i made on this there are a list of different terms which for example would love things like our speed so that's an important factor things like portability i think it.

Mentioned in the first question um of the top of a quick page portability i haven't spoken about right i mentioned that nina wants an external one so maybe she wants to take it around and have it stored somewhere else in her house maybe needs to be portable also reliability the idea that it should you know work.

Over a long period of time consistently and finally durability is another good one we can write about the idea that it should not break too easily reliability is much more longer term and it working normally over a long period of time durability is much more about what damage can it take.

Probably not much especially in the case of magnetic but you'd want it to take some minor damage maybe now what am i missing here we could also say cost and that's probably the most obvious one which i forgot to say i could also maybe say oh another obvious one so the size or the.

Capacity is a better word that's obviously a factor but they didn't come to my mind for some reason okay for a third question we're told a satellite navigation system of satnav uses ram and rom you just tick one box to show whether each of your statements are true.

For ram or for wrong okay so first of all stores of boot up sequence of the sat nav is going to be rom that's really what rom does is just stores instructions which allow the computer to boot up by boot up it means because initially our os.

Our operating system is stored in our secondary storage so it might be in say a hard drive not in a satellite but in a normal computer it might be a hard drive it needs to go into our ram to be used by the cpu and so the boot instructions tell the cpu how to move the os into ram.

That's really what it's doing along with some other small functions that's the key function i suppose okay and now this contents are lost when sat nav is turned off well ram is volatile which means loses the contents and power is turned off which is exactly what it's asking for so that corresponds to ram rom is.

Non-volatile because if we lost these instructions every time power was lost we would never be able to turn on our computer because we can't boot up and finally host copies of open maps and routes this would be thinking about what ram and rom do this will be ram as well because anything being.

Open on your computer will be a satellite in this case needs to be held in ram because ram is directly connected to your cpu so is wrong to be fair but we need to have stuff open in ram so we can use it in the cpu rom hasn't got enough space to store open copies of stuff.

And for part b we are told contains an embedded system define what is meant by an embedded system for only one mark here it could be a two marker that's quite common because there are two aspects to this definition first of all the word embedded means we have a we have a computer built.

Into another device but also it's a special purpose computer so we could save those both things only one would get us a mark however so let's just say it is a special purpose computer could also say dedicated to a particular task special purpose computer.

Built in or encapsulated but into another system another device not always a computer but it's inside it that'll give us two marks if it was a two-mark question to be honest but it's not and for part c a really typical question we need to identify three devices other than satnav which contain.

Embedded systems so this is where you don't want to have in your mind a bank of just examples you can write down in exams so you're not thinking off the top of your head totally so the one i love and the classic example is a washing machine which always seems to get mentioned a.

Washing machine has got a small computer measuring i don't know really the weight of your clothes the cycles and how much detergent to put in stuff like this what else could we say another example i like is sort of a hot tub i don't know why i like that example hot.

Tub um it'll have computers measuring the temperature of the water and adding jets and bubbles i don't know exactly but have some very simple computer and a third one let's say i don't know what would contain an embedded system let's say a car another.

Classic example a car might have built in satellite actually itself or have other systems doing things like for um automatic lights maybe indicators maybe a self-driving car we'll have loads of embedded systems that's an example we give another example people often give us a phone.

Which i think is probably okay ish it's not the greatest answer some phones do some phones don't a phone which might have an embedded system might be a phone with like a special camera where it's doing some sort of maybe ar augmented reality maybe with a biometric some phones have got what we call this.

What they call a secure enclave where it does the embedded fingerprint sensor and so on um but a phone is probably not the strongest example you could give if there's a computer inside it and it's a bigger system it'll be fine to write down for a question like this for question.

Four a computer records an audio file of someone playing guitar describe what happens when the computer converts the music into a file for only two marks here could be maybe three or four potentially what it's asking for is really how does a computer convert from what is an analog signal someone just.

Playing guitar into a digital format inside a file so it's sampling in other words right what goes on when we sample a sound piece of sound first of all the idea is we have some sound wave recorded by a microphone and what we're doing is recording the height.

That's a terrible line that's meant to be a straight line the height of our wave is set intervals so those are meant to be consistent they're not really but we're measuring the height and converting each reading into binary and that binary value is stored okay so set intervals this is the time.

Axis and our height is the y-axis and we convert it to binary like so okay so um let's start by saying the analog sound is sampled at regular intervals okay so at set times we take a sample and the sample is of.

Your height to the amplitude of your wave and it's converted to binary so i guess once we convert to binary we store them together in the file so once you're stored in binary um it's a digital version of your analog wave so that's maybe a bit much for two marks but you can see i've tried to make two.

Points there you know with sampling regular time intervals what do we do for samples well we put them into binary to be able to store it as a file on a computer right now for part b the sample rate is increased on the computer when recording the guitar give two effects this will have on the.

Recording so the sample rate is also called the sample frequency it's measured in hertz and a hertz a hertz i guess is a singular version is one sample per second so it's how many samples we're taking per second right so my diagram is terrible here but if i took more samples.

Per second the wave uh dear idea the waves becomes more realistic because i can get more data and take more readings and it just becomes a lot smoother otherwise it might be quite sort of blocky for wave which is stored might be quite blocky and does not sound.

Particularly realistic so the quality gets better because it becomes more like the original but we're storing more data and so therefore the file size goes up too now i'm not going to say this but you know the effect of it being close to the original will be.

Quality will improve you could just say that it would be simpler i'm always reluctant because in my eyes quality is a bit more subjective and it depends on your speakers and so on but that's it's okay for gcse level and question two for part two what did i say well file size will it will increase.

It doesn't say to explain it but if we had to it'd be because we're storing more data per second okay and now into a couple looks like of binary conversions which is nice and shifting too now there are not they're not ever worth many marks so please bear that in mind a lot of people.

Expect they're gonna be worth you know five marks they're usually one mark these conversions which is why you need to have them sort of down and not not wanna don't spend too long in the exam on these questions so we need to convert this binary number into dna first thing i would do.

Is do a little table you could do it just above the number here but let me just write it out quickly okay now our headings for our table replace value in binary is going to be starting f1 our least significant bit 2 4 8 16 32 64 and 128 you can just learn these headings but.

They just just double starting at one so i was always a struggle when i have to write in um these lines that's not good whatsoever all we do to go from binary to decimal into dna is just add up our column headings when i've got a one written underneath so 128 plus 64.

Plus eight plus two and plus one now i've not given myself much space fare because you haven't got a calculator you've got to do it in your head but i would say don't do in your head do it on paper because it just reduces the risk of any mistakes so first of all eight plus two plus one.

Is eleven so really we're going plus eleven here what we're going to write down let me give myself a bit more space here a plus 4 is 12 plus 1 is 13 carry over one somewhere three plus six is nine we've got ten we carry another one and now one plus one is two so the answer is two hundred.

And three could do a little ten to show it's in dinner now for part b we need to complete a two-place shift to the right on this binary number given here so right shift means as the name suggests we're taking this number to the right which means we're bringing in some zeros from the left we're going.

To effectively lose the last two bits at the least significant bit end because they're sort of going beyond an imaginary binary point so really all i need to do is write down this number just minus the last two bits so let's do that so one one.

Zero zero one zero and those two ones are kind of going beyond a binary point but we don't really learn about this gcse so we can just ignore that and don't write anything down for those last two bits and we have two zeros brought in but because the zeros are msb and they don't do anything they're.

Just leading zeros so you don't have to write them down it's fine without them okay that's the answer for this two place right shift now party we've got a really common follow-up to shifting questions where it's asking the effect or performing the shift we just did.

So without calculating it you could convert it and see the effect yourself but you can just learn that shift is always doing something either times by two or dividing by two each shift so right shift is dividing by two a left shift is timesing by two.

Okay and it's always by an amount two to the power x where x is how many shifts you are doing so here we're doing two shifts so therefore it's two power two which is four so we're dividing by four is what's happening here okay so um we are dividing by four but that's not enough for two.

Marks right you should be thinking well hang on that's not enough for two marks the second mark comes from the fact that we have lost those two bits i said they are actually beyond a binary point which just does exist but we just don't know about it and so.

Really they're gone but it means if we lose any values beyond our binary point it means we are losing our fraction okay so we are effectively rounding down when you do a right binary shift okay and i don't know whether that's much thicker let's get rid of that we are rounding down.

You can also write within the quotient operation the question is where we are removing any fraction if you want to be really clear what you mean by this you could say something like losing the fraction or fractional parts for question six we're given part of the ascii table with five characters in and.

The corresponding ascii codes written in dna it looks like and we must explain how the word mop will be represented in ascii for two marks so really want two points here now i suppose the keyboard is first of all each character will be looked at and the corresponding code will be found.

And written down consecutively so the code for m followed by the code for o followed by the code for p so written down in order so each character in mop is converted to its ascii code in the same order it's written now that's our one that's our first point i suppose but crucially.

We don't leave the codes and buying in in dna we convert them to binary and so we could say that but to be more specific how many bits are allocated to each code well in ascii we have eight bits so a byte um per code now technically a bits is extended ascii seven bits is original.

Ascii but ocr will use eight bits in the exam now for question seven we're moving on to networking which is one of our i suppose for bigger topics to have to memorize lots of content to learn which some of you might like some of you might not like so.

We start by getting told the owners of a large bakery have a low query network with a start apology the order supplies over the internet when data is transmitted from a bakery to the supplier network protocols are used and we need to define what's meant by a network protocol for a single mark.

So protocol is a set of agreed rules which allow two devices to communicate so i believe that could be a two mark question there's sort of two points in them there but that's fine for one mark you know the purpose of protocol is we need to be able to have.

Some agreed rules otherwise how enough would you communicate how a is made in different countries by different people somehow managed to communicate in binary it just wouldn't work unless you had some really clear rules that's what a protocol is now tcp is a set of protocols based on layers.

And with regard to that protocols to find what's meant by a layer for a mark a layer's difficult term to define but really it's a way to group one aspect of your communication process so when we typically think of four layers the top layer being your application bottom layer being your link and the.

Idea being that each each layer has its own job each layer is doing one particular aspect of your process if a link layer is where things like wi-fi operate the application layers where things like http operate the idea that they're very different protocols they do.

Very different jobs having a layer means it's doing just one part of your communication process so i would say you know it is an aspect of communication functionality you could also say a grouping maybe it's a better word or a category a word along those lines but the idea is.

Each layer is doing one particular job it's one part of your communication process now for ii we need to describe one advantage of using layers to construct network protocols and it's one advantage but we want two points because it's two marks now going back to this sort of.

Half-hearted drawing i did of our four layers well the main idea is because each one is solving a particular aspect of the communication functionality it means you can switch out any other layer without really affecting any other layer right so if i make some change to http if i make version 2.

Of http it's not going to affect wi-fi or tcp which is at our transport layer or ip which is out for network layer it won't affect another layer because they're self-contained so a change can be made to protocol one layer without affecting the other layers now.

I've written this point here but that's quite a long point but it's not i'm not done you've got to be careful not to move on without checking you have received or you expect to receive all of the marks available to you so i haven't really described it i've just stated like i mean i've just said what like a.

Property of layers but i haven't said why is an advantage necessarily so i've got to say that as well if it said explain it would be more like why this property is true but it does say describe which is a little bit different so a bit of exam technique you've got a little bit.

Careful to not mix up your command words so um what is the advantage of this so it means there is great compatibility between different protocols perhaps a better word for compatibility is inter operability which is.

Really the idea that you can switch out different protocols without really affecting other aspects of the process or generally you can change devices without really causing many issues it's much better for keeping things consistent and also it's very much linked to standards so the idea that we want really.

Consistent um ways of approaching problems to allow more consistency and compatibility now for c i need to give two reasons why the bakery may use a start network topology for their local area network so it did say at the top they have a star topology it.

Means well a start apologies where you've got a central node and you've got connections going through that node um and all connections or little packets are going via that central node to get to the destination so that contrast of a mesh topology master apologies where you have i should really.

Probably draw more more dots here is where each node each computer each device is directly connected to each other so it's a little bit more complex to draw um i think that must be a mesh topology so there's no central device in that case now why is it starts pretty good what.

Are some advantages of a star topology well it's very easy to add new devices why is this well you only need to connect up your new device to the central node not to every other connection in the network which takes time especially the bigger it gets.

Another advantage of a star topology is if one device one node fails it will not affect the rest of your network now the exception to this is your central node because if your central device your switch your hub your router fails but nothing is able to communicate.

Through it because it's not working if an outer node stops working or goes offline and gets turned off it doesn't affect the other computers in the network which is a good thing in a full mesh topology it's also the same you know one device going down does not affect other devices if it was a partial mesh and one device.

Was being used as sort of a intermediate device that might affect other devices but the full mesh is okay too but there are some topologies where that's not the case so for instance not in your course but there's a topology called a ring topology.

Which as the name suggests each node is connected in a ring in a circle effectively i mean not literally but they are connected to each other in that way and messages pass through it in one direction and so if one computer goes down it means your ring is broken and so.

Nothing can pass through it and it affects computers nearby you just can't get anything from the network so that's another advantage what else could we say we could say things like a star topology is quite high performing so it's quite high performing and what i mean by that is it has a few errors.

Or let's put another way a few collisions so again not so much in a mesh admittedly but in something like a starter college in a um what's this quarter again a ring topology there might be some collisions um potential well actually no i'll correct myself there.

In a bust bus topology another one it's not in your course but i can mention anyway bus apology has one big line which is your bus which branches out and connects to other computers and so the idea being for this one bus in the middle is your highway.

Your motorway in which all messages go back and forth and so you do the collisions here because two devices could communicate at the same time if messages can kind of like bump into each other and collide and have errors which loads things down has to and these two things get re-transmitted.

Which makes it not very high performing in the star topology if two devices communicate at the same time the middle device will just sort of decide which ones goes first and there's not really a collision in the same way another point you can make is about security.

So starter project is quite secure in terms of the fact that devices only see only receive messages which are designed to go to them are meant to go to them whereas in a ring topology because messages get passed via devices potentially a device is able to see a message.

It's not meant to get likewise in the bus topology any device can see every message unless it's encrypted and so that's not great for security it starts apology because it's much more direct there's no chance of another device seeing the message which is not meant for it.

Same with mesh unless a partial mesh slightly complicates that now for question eight we're moving on to security so hospital stores patients details on its computer network vospro is concerned about the security of its patients details which is good they should be.

Concerned the staff already use strong passwords to protect systems explain reference to system security three other ways the hospital could protect the network system for how many marks six marks interesting okay so exam technique six marks we've got three points therefore we want to have two.

Marks per point so we don't want to write too much or too little we want two distinct points for each of our security methods now almost specification there are a few ones listed you could mention one's not on that list but i'm not going to so what is on the.

List encryption firewalls passwords have been mentioned uh physical security anti-malware software and i think user access levels and maybe also white hacking or penetration testing is also mentioned i think most suitable here might be encryption as our first.

One because you need to make sure the details if they are stolen somehow do not mean anything to the thief because they are encrypted they are kept secret effectively so let me put that first of all the hospital is able to or should be encrypting patients details.

So you'd get a mark for saying they could be encrypted if i can spell it correctly you get them off saying it could be encrypted but clearly that's not enough for two marks and so your explanation is why that ought to keep things more secure why would protect the network well it's.

Because if anyone comes across this data who shouldn't have access they're not authorized to do so would not be able to read it because it's scrambled up and unreadable to them now it does mention network so let's think about stuff being in transit.

So data being moved around not data sat on a computer just because it's not really related to a network so the idea being that if someone intercepts the details it will not be readable to them so that is quite a key point regarding encryption encryption doesn't do much in.

Terms of stopping an attacker actually accessing the details you know anyone could still intercept it it's just unreadable it's just random nonsense effectively unless you've got a decryption key and you can bring it back to the original data.

Okay as our first one that'll give us two marks our second technique i mentioned i think i mentioned firewalls it has wonderful ones on the course which are a great thing to mention for network systems some of the things i mentioned like physical security.

And access levels maybe are not as relevant for networks could be mentioned maybe but not as relevant i think firewalls are quite important so a firewall sits at your border between your network and a public network and filters out any packets which are a little bit suspicious.

So a firewall could be installed to block any suspicious network traffic okay and that's answer is okay i think maybe two marks if if the examiner's being extremely generous i think it's important to say why that's important like you're gonna block.

Any suspicion never traffic what's that what could that be trying to do well it could be trying to access the files it's always a good idea to mention of a case study in some way so mentioning patience files not just any files so it was nice to show you our listening and our following along with.

What the question paper is saying and the third method i think probably hear what is relevant to networks um i would say anti-malware software because it can stop certain malware like worms spreading throughout the network so it could be used to detect and remove.

Any malware found and always best kind of overstate your point here why is it important to remove any malware found well to reduce your risk of damaging any of the data or changing the data okay so um that should be six marks hopefully you can see where.

My thinking is is going here you know thinking about the network in particular you could mention the other measures i said at the start but thinking network what is most relevant to a network and to hospital in particular we've got patience details you can see the two points per um.

Per point per prevention measure just so i've got enough points on the board for the examiner to give me hopefully six marks for part b we've got another security question also worth six marks so a lot of marks available on this page we need to identify three errors that the hospital staff can make.

That may endanger the security of the network outline a procedure that could be in place to prevent each error so because it's an identified question we don't have to say why these errors are problems and also you have to really add much to our procedure we just have to outline it which means just say what.

We could do now it's not obvious straight away how this question relates to the specification because we don't use errors and procedures as terminology as such but what it's asking for you know errors are really what saying what vulnerabilities could arise from the.

Actions of staff often the staff are the me and weakness overall and a procedure is a prevention measure but it's much more about policy so anti-virus software is a good prevention measure but itself is not a procedure i mean you could say.

There could be a procedure to install anti-virus software the software itself is not a procedure so it's more about like what management could do to try and reduce the risk of these vulnerabilities being exploited well what mistakes could be made regarding the network.

Well let's say maybe a door to the server rooms could be left unlocked how could you what if you if you were a manager how could you implement a procedure to try and limit the effect of this well you could maybe mandate use of swipe cards cards to open doors.

It means you don't need a physical key to do this usually whenever a swipe goes involved doors lock automatically and so you avoid the issue of a physical key being left what else could happen when an employee could maybe download download.

Um malware from uh or website could give malware from let's say from an illegal uh movie website which is the most common example i would hear about where malware could be given right now i've given that point because.

Thinking of a procedure what sort of management advice which could be done or management strategy to solve this well you could ban certain suspicious websites from being accessed now what else can we say i mean there are other security risks obviously like.

Risk of sql injection or risk of somebody using a usb stick to take away information things which you i could argue are not errors so thinking about errors like mistakes what could be a mistake um you have got to think in your feet a little bit of these questions a third.

Mistake could be somebody connecting a personal device to the network which contains malware on it so we've said manual already but i think they are a different point here so third error could be connecting a personal device.

Infected with malware so run out of space fair i think to be fair this is a sample paper so it's not designed particularly well there's not need enough space i would suggest my question but what procedure could you do to put him to sort of stop is happening where you could ban personal devices.

Which a lot of well some companies do band personal devices meaning you can't connect your laptop to the network in case it has marijuana which could spread personal devices um also you could block usb ports that's quite a common one too so you can't plug in your own storage device but i think.

That'd be sufficient here because it's not directly on my specification you can think for yourself a little bit here and probably they're not gonna be too strict i would just stick to when it says procedure stick to things which are not concrete but are more like what management might.

Do to try and stop this being an issue now moving on to question nine so we're almost done getting there at least we now have a restaurant which has a computer-based audience system which is running slowly a technician has said that the hard disk drive is fragmented.

So nationally suggested using 2d software to defragment the device right explain how restaurants hard disk could have become fragmented for four marks so we're looking for four points here and because it's given us a mini paragraph here with context we better try and bring that context in.

Our answer so fragmentation is a problem pretty much specific to magnetic hard disks does not really apply to solid-state storage or any other storage really the idea being you've got a hard disk and because it's a physical disk and you're storing data as different magnetic polarities so you've.

Got zeros and ones effectively encoded using the polarity of a magnet which i can try and draw in a rubbish way using arrows the issue being as you are adding new files to it you're obviously taking out some storage so you add a new file to it take up storage.

And this happens as you keep adding new files you know takes up varying amounts of storage to the hard disk and so when it when it's full when it's eventually full which i can try and quickly mimic with bad drawing when it's full and you end up deleting a file.

You will effectively just give up that space right the space is now available and if you've got a file which is going to be written to which is bigger than the space available it has to get split up across multiple sections so maybe our new file is too big so a lot of it gets saved in this big chunk here.

But another part of it gets saved in another smaller space and another part of the disk the issue being this split between possibly different and quite a few different locations on the disk means whenever you want to read that data you've got to read it from several.

Locations and that takes time it's why it slows down when it becomes fragmented so generally fragmented means you've got files which are stored in your disk but they're quite split up and are stored overall in different areas right let's see if i can put into words but evan i can draw it that was.

Especially poor so you know the idea is right as orders are made let's put it in context as orders are made they'll be stored on the hard disk right um as orders are made they are stored on the hard disk and we don't know how this works exactly but i would imagine.

When payments are made or when the bill is paid um for bills are paid these orders get deleted and so was the effect of this well there will be gaps left in the disk okay what happens now well when new orders are added if they are bigger than the gaps they'll.

Have to get split up and stored in multiple locations so as i've changed my mind to say stored across multiplications you know stored in suggested versus copies of them which is not quite right sort of cross multiplications and well what's a problem with this it means uh well.

It doesn't actually ask what problem is here to be fair i was about to answer about to not really answer the question it's just saying how could it become fragmented not why that's a problem because it looks like that's going to be answered pretty much in part b.

Let's have a little check have i got four four points here let me have a thing i've got four colors but it's not necessarily four points that's just me trying to make it look a bit nicer so as always i made based on a hard disk okay half a point maybe not full point here i'm always paid orders get deleted.

That's probably a mark especially with the first point there'll be gaps left and were made which i think is probably another mark and i would say that's probably the last sentence is probably the most important there's probably two marks the idea that if they're bigger than the gaps one mark.

They'll be split second mark so i think i've got four points always check after you've finished an answer like this we've got all the points and be careful not to do what i almost did which is answer your own question not the question which is given but let's see this second part because.

It may answer that question i was about to talk about so explain how defragmentation software could overcome the issue of the slow computer system so in other words why will running defragmentation software make it faster in other words why is it slow when it's fragmented.

Well the way defragmentation software works is by moving moving the split files so that they are stored together and i reading that back it doesn't make a lot of sense let me just change the start of it by saying it will move because it was not very good english um explain questions you've got to try and.

Be relatively clear here so move the slip files so that they are stored together now what effect will this have to read one of these files you will not need to access multiple locations and to make sure we're really clear about why this is why is that a good thing while i.

Overcome the issue well um this will take less time to read the files overall okay so looks like we've got three points there so hopefully three marks overall now moving on to question 10 so back to networks looks like a little company currently uses their local area.

Network linked to a wide area network they want to upgrade their system to utilize cloud storage define what was meant by a wide area network for only one mark it can be a couple of marks here so wide area network is a network over a large geographical area so that's sufficient.

For one mark i mean if it was a two marker which it can be sometimes the other defining factor of a wan is it has some shared infrastructure so the the law company won't own every single thing because there'll be you know maybe a cable a fiber optic cable owned by the isp.

Maybe there'll be um a bit of a card like a router which is owned by another company so it's a bit more shared allowing is owned by one company or one entity so you could say about two or alternative to large area don't be careful not to restate it right if you just said it's an eric over a.

Wide area even though it's effectively fainting things i've written here because it's using the word inverse definition it will probably not get given and for part b and to explain two advantages to the law company of storing the data in the cloud if you're one of those people who.

Underline parts of questions which is a good exam technique i would say what's really important here is the two of the law company bit right again a bit like our whatever it was our restaurant we've got to make sure our context matches up with our answers whenever it gives.

You know quite a clear indication like that now um because we're explaining we want to set a point and quickly say why it would be an advantage well cloud storage what's good about it well it's easily scalable so if you want to increase your allocation by quite a lot.

It's no bother for the cloud storage company to do that you just pay a bit more money and get more storage it's much harder to do it in person and to buy new devices so let's start by stating that point so it will be easily scalable and how can we sort of force.

That context into our answer here well we could say so if the lawyers suddenly take on many more cases they can simply pay for more storage more cloud storage instead of installing more physical storage themselves or taking the time to store more.

Physical storage themselves okay i've run out of space again there might just be me being a bit long or it might be you're not being a particularly well designed exam paper i'll blame ocr not myself here obviously now for the second advantage what else is good about cloud storage.

Well i think a huge benefit is being able to access your your data from anywhere or anywhere with an internet connection so you can move around much more easily the lawyers can be out at court and access their files outside of the office so i'm going to say they can continue to.

Work remotely when out of the office right hopefully you can see what i've been doing here so trying to set a point and explain that i'm trying to cram in some link to the law company doesn't need to be perfect and make lots of sense but you need to do some link okay now a very common follow-up here so the same.

Question just in terms of disadvantages again to the law company not just generally um what are some bad things about cloud storage well i mean based on my last point i did caveat my last advantage by saying you need to have an internet connection well we can save that can't we you know you cannot access your stuff unless.

You've got an internet connection and why could that be a problem well this may not be possible for lawyers who work with clients in remote locations and for a second advantage well i mean it can be an advantage too in cloud companies provide where you hope provide security.

You hope they provide backups as part of their coverage but ultimately you are reliant on the cloud company to look after your data and ensure ensure backups are kept so let's focus on security because that's you know biggest problem if maybe they've got personal information probably lots.

Of it if they're a law company and any of it could get stolen by a hacker attacking a cloud storage provider so um the law company are relying on the security of the cloud provider but the issue is if these fail it will still affect the law company.

Maybe it'll affect their reputation all right so i forgot what i said out loud but i just added if these fail like if the measures fell for cloud company and client's data gets stolen it'll be the law company's reputation which gets damaged too so it's sort of a lose-lose situation.

With security with cloud storage in that it's not really your fault if something goes wrong but you get the blame for it as a company because your clients would argue you should have looked after it yourself so it would affect their reputation they might get sued as well.

But you'd have to be quite brave to sue a law company i suppose i think if you had another answer here it might be about backups would be the best answer after these two i would suggest so back up to the idea that you are reliant on them backing up your data they might not always do it or there might be some errors and so on.

Really that second point in each answer here is not nearly as important as long as you link it to the context and it does connect to your first point you'll get the second mark for each of those two disadvantages now moving on to part d we've got a multiple choice question.

Here effectively worth six marks which is always nice so we've got some actions that may take place in the lore company's office take one box in each row to show which legislation applies to each action so we've got the data protection act which is about you as an organization ensuring you are looking after data you.

Are collecting and you're getting consent and you've got good security etc the computer machine act is about hacking really and preventing people from just being allowed to hack and also people making malware and the copyright design and patents act is about looking after intellectual.

Property things like pictures someone's taken writing somebody's done or writing computer software would be covered under that law as well so first of all using a picture for the law company's new logo without original creator's permission so that would be as i effectively said.

Would be the copyright designs and patents act because when the original creator made that picture they would get copyright automatically and we'd have to give permission to the company otherwise it would be illegal according to this law to reuse it at least now we've got a.

Secretary accessing a lawyer's personal email account without permission well which one is that most like it's most like hacking because without permission is black cat hacking where you're going into an account without being allowed to so therefore covered under the computer misuse act.

Third action make a copy of a latest hollywood blockbuster movie and sharing it with a client well it's not about hacking that in that case it's not really about looking after data it's about who owns the movie not that lawyer right you can't share it without permission or without a license.

At least when you pay for a movie that might give you certain conditions you can watch it with your friends and so on you can't share it without permission of the creator and now storing custom data insecurely so not about for copyright and so on not about.

Computer misuse at because that's more about the perpetrator so therefore it's going to be the data protection act the idea that as a company you've got a responsibility to make sure data is kept secure and now alloy installing a key logger on the secretary's computer well that would be thinking perpetrator.

It would be the computer machus act you can't do that without permission it's distributing malware a key logger records what you're typing so it's a type of spyware and finally selling clients personal legal data to a marketing company without their permission now that would definitely be the data.

Protection act you cannot do that you need permission to be able to pass on data which you probably won't get in that case so those are the answers which i've used different colors for no particular reason i was almost perfect if i didn't do purple would have somewhat matched up but you.

Know again to reiterate data protection act is about looking after people's data and making sure it's kept safe computer machus act is about someone being an attacker either hacking or malware and the copyright designs and patents act is about whether you are allowed to.

Use somebody else's work to do so effectively you need permission possibly via paying for a license moving on to the last question i believe in the paper yet which is always a nice feeling this is a question you'll see a lot not in this exact form but the same format because you'll always get an eight.

Marker in paper one and it will always be a quality of written communication question because we know that because we've got a star so you could have answered any of these questions so far we've built up points of misspellings and so on without too much ill effect i mean that's not good i would always.

Suggest writing questions properly without bullet points unless you absolutely have to but here you'll get marks for your your clarity your spelling how well your points link and so on okay so you'll get a question like this in your actual exam for sure maybe not the exact.

Topic here which is about impacts of how often they are on impacts um so bear that in mind now before we talk about how you would go about answering it let's look at this particular question so it says people often want to buy the most up-to-date smartphones even though the smartphone they own.

Still works discuss the impact of people wanting to upgrade to a later smartphone and we might consider the impact on smartphone users cultural issues ethical issues and environmental issues if i answered each of those points in detail we'd go way beyond eight marks and way beyond the space available so you've.

Got to pick what you want to write about here it might be a good idea to write about each of these points because thinking exam technique an eight marker i always would want to make about half as many points as there are marks available so it's.

Worth eight marks and so i want to make four points each worth two marks okay so by point i mean i'm going to state a point and briefly either describe it or explain it to hopefully give me two marks overall per point now it's not as.

Strict as this it's not in the mark scheme they don't mark the examiner doesn't market according to how many points you've made the market overall have they overall made a good answer here but to get enough points i would always go for this technique make about four if you can make five that's great but.

It's better to make four which are linked and five which are not particularly well connected now because it is hard to write a really coherent answer straight out of the bat i would always suggest planning it which is why it's important you give yourself enough time to do this if.

You're reaching this question with four minutes to go because you've been a little bit too slow previous questions it's gonna be very hard to write a decent answer here ideally you'll get to this point with about 15 maybe 20 minutes to go including any time you do to check.

Just so you've got breathing space and you can make a quick plan so i would always spend about a minute maybe a minute and a half doing joining us some ideas of things you can write about in this question so don't write it you know in the question space itself write it on some white space because the.

Examiner won't want to look at it so just put it somewhere else i'm just going to do mine here if it does give you space i would always annotate the question effectively but there may not be enough space for you to do it in your actual exam so what are some ideas we could say well first of all.

Thinking about smartphone users let's try and do one point of each year smartphone users why would they want to upgrade their phones well it might be to improve performance phones do get faster year on year and sometimes old phones can really start to slow down after a few years so.

It could be performance well like cultural issues well it could be i think sometimes peer pressure so culture is more about as a society what we tend to be doing is often peer pressure or it seems like there is to upgrade to the latest phone.

Certain brands of phone and more popular of course and that can be a pressure point to force somebody to want to upgrade we could definitely link peer pressure to an ethical issue often companies play off that pressure in advertising show lots of happy friends together using the latest phone or device.

Whatever it is but i think on a separate point we can maybe mention the idea that phone companies are often suspected of deliberately slowing down their own devices or not maybe not deliberately but you know adding updates which are deliberately bloating.

And causing it to slow down it's trying to force people to upgrade that's called planned obsolescence where things start to break after a few years and also they make it quite hard to repair as you might know if you've smashed your phone or something's gone wrong it's often very hard to open up and fix it yourself.

You've got to pay lots of money to repair it or to buy a new phone and that will link to environmental issues the idea that maybe things don't get recycled and so maybe you've got precious materials inside the phones like silver and gold in very small quantities which can't be.

Easily recovered so there are four points we could talk about i hope you can think of more i i would be able to think of more but we don't need to spend a long time doing this about a minute overall planning this joint down no one's going to read this apart from you if you do it off in the distance so it's.

Only for you and for your help now importantly spend a second to try and link these points right so how can you connect what order is best well actually probably the order here is okay but what points go well together let's definitely link all we could do we could link.

Performance and slowing down the idea that performance will get improved but also potentially because of the unethical planned obsolescence and then we can maybe link that to peer pressure the idea that if you've got a slow phone maybe that's going to make you feel bad.

And because of this entire process is going to lead to lack of recycling and maybe issues with the environment so let's first of all talk about performance and second of all talk about slowing down and then talk about peer pressure and finally talk about recycling okay so the little numbers.

So it helps you when you're actually writing it and because you've planned you can now answer the question without thinking too much about what you're going to write more about how you're going to write it so let's start it doesn't need to be a perfect answer here realistically um so let's start by.

Saying some people may want to constantly upgrade their phone because the performance increases substantially year on year so that's my point let's now quickly explain it so why might this be important well it might mean they can play the latest games on their phone.

Okay so that's my first point on performance and positive point about performance let's go to a negative point about performance which is always good discuss questions are always quite balanced some good things some bad things about this whole situation.

So uh this can be i suppose worsened by certain manufacturers deliberately slowing down older phones right so i think i rewrote that as opposed to what i said out loud but what i did write is sometimes manufacturers are suspected of unethical behavior where we deliberately slow down older models by forcing more.

Demanding software to be installed you might have had it before where you get an update and it suddenly really slows things down because it's designed for newer phones and so you effectively have to upgrade to stop it being so slow and i have you know tried to clearly signpost to.

The examiner what i mean here and why i'm saying this point when i'm saying it because i think it's unethical it shows i have considered a question you could be more subtle i suppose i think don't leave it to examine to interpret be really clear about what you mean.

Whether you're talking about cultural ethical or environmental now my third point was on peer pressure so let's mention this there might be a cultural pressure to upgrade okay so you know i've linked i've tried to link my points a little bit here by saying another factor.

So just trying to show i'm not writing completely separate points if i kind of am i have to say but you're trying to hide that as best you can in fact it might be cultural pressure to upgrade with users feeling self-conscious if they feel they're not participating in a trend their peers are.

Not the most perfect sentence i've said feel and feeling twice fair but what can you do in the exam you're going to write stuff which doesn't make sense always now final point was on the environment and recycling now because i've been quite negative here i've kind of done one positive.

Two negatives regarding upgrading i think let's try and bring another positive i know environmentally it's not many positives but you could argue well if somebody's upgrading it gives them a chance to recycle it and maybe pass it on to somebody else maybe somebody else.

In need so we could say you know the phone might get sent to landfill but it could be recycled and used again right so i've just run out of space fare with two words if there's any more than two words you might have to go onto new paper you have to ask your invigilator for.

Some more lined paper you can't just write in the margin or below or around copyright it might not get scanned so i find my final point was on environmental factors which i could have said more clearly but i ran out of space to be honest i said if your phone is sent to landfill.

It could mean the scarce components like gold are lost although if you recycle it the old phone could be reused by somebody who would benefit from it so a bit of a positive to end and i suppose so yeah you've got four points as hopefully you can see each one has been elaborated on a little bit.

So we ever explained or described or just another point made which should hopefully give examiner enough reason to give me eight marks overall that's a thinking at least it's your whole answer which is what's marked upon not individual points but if you're writing enough it should.

Be a massive help to you as well right so at this point it's really important if you have any time left over you spend it checking your answers if you finish and the time's up well what can you do but if you have got time as is really the design of this paper.

As we said at the start there's meant to be about 10 minutes free at the end to check your answers check them make sure you read every single word ideally look for mistakes there will definitely be some mistakes in here somewhere i'm sure i have made mistakes in here even me recording a video hopefully i.

Spot from doing editing maybe not but try and find them right and try and add more points if you can be careful not to tamper with your answers too much don't be too indecisive if you're not quite sure it might be best to stick with your first answer i'm sure you've had.

Experiences where you've put a correct answer and changed your mind and got it wrong you can't overthink things a little bit and you can't add more points and those points might be wrong so just be careful but it's not a bad idea adding more examples if you can think of them.

So hopefully this video has been helpful i really hope so and i hope you do really well in this exam so best best of luck and thanks for watching

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